Sepsis can have severe clinical consequences (morbidity) and has a high mortality rate. The successful treatment of sepsis depends on an early diagnosis and identification of the specific bacterial cause. The problem is that patients with sepsis often present, as noted in the previous section, with symptoms that are not specific to sepsis. It is important to begin treatment early and to monitor the person with sepsis carefully. Treatment may begin in the hospital emergency room (ER) and is frequently continued and monitored with the person in an intensive care unit (ICU). Treatment is focused on addressing the infection, stabilizing the person's blood pressure and oxygen supply, restoring acid-base balance, and supporting their organ function.
IV fluids are given to help improve and stabilize blood pressure. Sometimes medications are given to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure.
Supplemental oxygen may be necessary, and some people require mechanical ventilation to assist with breathing. Other organ support, such as kidney dialysis, is sometimes necessary when organs start to fail.
Surgical procedures are sometimes necessary to remove medical devices such as catheters that may be the source of the infection, to drain abscesses or fluids, to remove and/or fix damaged tissue, and to remove blockages.