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Anti-LKM-1

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Also known as: Liver Kidney Microsomal Type 1 Antibodies; LKM1 Antibodies; Anti-Liver/Kidney Microsomal Antibodies Type 1; Anti-LKM1; Anti-P450 2D6 Antibody
Formal name: Liver Kidney Microsome Type 1 Antibodies (Cytochrome P450 2D6 Antibodies)

At a Glance

Why Get Tested?

To help diagnose autoimmune hepatitis and distinguish it from other causes of liver injury

When to Get Tested?

When you have hepatitis that your health practitioner suspects may be due to an autoimmune-related process

Sample Required?

A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm

Test Preparation Needed?

None

The Test Sample

What is being tested?

Liver kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM-1) antibodies are autoantibodies, proteins produced by the body's immune system that recognize and target its own enzyme called cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a protein found primarily in liver cells. The development of anti-LKM-1 antibodies is strongly associated with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. This test detects and measures the amount (titer) of anti-LKM-1 (or antibody against CYP2D6) in the blood.

Autoimmune hepatitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the liver that can lead to liver cirrhosis and, in some cases, to liver failure. It is hepatitis that is not due to another identifiable cause, such as a viral infection, exposure to a drug or toxin, a hereditary disorder, or alcohol abuse. Anyone can develop the disorder, but the majority of those affected are women.

There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis. Type 1 is the most common form of autoimmune hepatitis in the United States and is associated with the presence of smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) in the blood. Type 2 is less common and tends to be more severe. It is associated with anti-LKM-1 antibodies and primarily affects young girls and is more common in Europe than in the United States.

How is the sample collected for testing?

A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm.

NOTE: If undergoing medical tests makes you or someone you care for anxious, embarrassed, or even difficult to manage, you might consider reading one or more of the following articles: Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety, Tips on Blood Testing, Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests, and Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests.

Another article, Follow That Sample, provides a glimpse at the collection and processing of a blood sample and throat culture.

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?

No test preparation is needed.

The Test

Common Questions

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Article Sources

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

(Updated 2012 February 16). Autoimmune Hepatitis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) [On-line information]. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/autoimmunehep/ through http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed August 2013.

Longstreth, G. (Updated 2012 October 8) Autoimmune hepatitis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000245.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2013.

Slev, P. and Tebo, A. (Updated 2013 February). Hepatitis, Autoimmune – AIH. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/AIH.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed August 2013.

((©) 1995 – 2013). Liver/Kidney Microsome Type 1 Antibodies, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/80387 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed August 2013

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Shaffer, E. (Revised 2009 June). Laboratory Tests of the Liver and Gallbladder. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed August 2013.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2012 April 18). Autoimmune hepatitis. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autoimmune-hepatitis/DS00676 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed August 2013.

Mieli-Vergani, G. (2009 August). Autoimmune Hepatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, v 49 (2) [On-line information]. Available online at http://journals.lww.com/jpgn/Fulltext/2009/08000/Autoimmune_Hepatitis.2.aspx through http://journals.lww.com. Accessed August 2013.

Trivedi, P. and Hirschfield, G. (2012). Review Article: Overlap Syndromes and Autoimmune Liver Disease. Medscape Today News from Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;36(6):517-533. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/770010_1 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed August 2013.

Stephen Kriese, S. and Heneghan, M. (2013). Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Management of Autoimmune Hepatitis. Medscape Multispecialty from Frontline Gastroenterol. 2013;4(1):2-11. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/776365 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed September 2013.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 314.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 682-683.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, pg 951.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. 4th edition, St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, pp 1812-1814.

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