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Cardiac Biomarkers

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Conditions: Heart Attack and Acute Coronary Syndrome, Angina

Elsewhere on the Web
American Heart Association: Symptoms and Diagnosis of Heart Attack
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: What is a heart attack?
Cleveland Clinic: Heart Attack 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Zieve, D. (Updated 2010 March 15). Troponin Test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007452.htm. Accessed November 2011.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 February 21). Myoglobin – serum. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003663.htm. Accessed November 2011.

Grenache, D. et. al. (Updated 2011 January). Ischemic Heart Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/IHD.html#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed November 2011.

Mayo Clinic staff (Updated 2010 May 19). Myocardial ischemia. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/myocardial-ischemia/DS01179/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed November 2011.

Zafari, A.M. (Updated 2011 October 11). Myocardial Infarction. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2011.

(April 28, 2004) National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB): Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines – Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndromes and Heart Failure. Accessed November 2011.

Robert H. Christenson, Ph.D., DABCC, FACB. Professor of Pathology, Professor of Medical and Research Technology. Director, Rapid Response Laboratories, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Morrow, D. et. al. (2004 April 8). Clinical: Acute Coronary Syndromes – Chapter 1. NACB Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines [On-line Draft Guidelines]. Available online at http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/biomark/card_biomarkers_chp1.doc through http://www.nacb.org.

Tang, W., et. al. (2004 February 27, Second Draft). NACB: Recommendations for the use of Cardiac Biomarkers in Heart Failure. [On-line Draft Guidelines]. Available online at http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/biomark/card_biomarkers_chp2.doc through http://www.nacb.org.

Canto, J. (2002 July 1) Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome, An Update in 2002. Univ of Alabama School of Medicine Division of Continuing Medical Education and Alabama Quality Assurance Foundation [On-line CME]. Available online at http://www.cme.uab.edu/onlineCourses/CardiacBiomarkers/ID0073.htm through http://www.cme.uab.edu.

Titus, Karen. (March 2004) The Latest on IMA Levels, High and Low. CAP Today. Available online at http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/cap_today/feature_stories/0304IMA.html through http://www.cap.org.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 1035, 319, 321, 668, 950, 670.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 306-315.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 261-268.

Christenson, R., Editor (© 2007). Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome and Heart Failure. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/AACC/members/nacb/LMPG/OnlineGuide/PublishedGuidelines/ACSHeart/ through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed on 2/24/08.

Weinrauch, L. (2007 March 30, Updated). Heart Attack. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000195.htm . Accessed on 2/17/08.

(2007 May). What is a Heart Attack. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/HeartAttack/HeartAttack_WhatIs.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/17/08.

Schreiber, D. and Miller, S. (2006 June 26, Updated). Use of Cardiac Markers in the Emergency Department. emedicine. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/TOPIC932.HTM through http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed on 2/24/08.

(2007 April). April 2007 Clinical Laboratory News: New NACB Guidelines Emphasize Cardiac Troponin for ACS. Clinical Laboratory News April 2007: v33 (4). Available online at http://www.aacc.org/AACC/publications/cln/2007/april/cover1_0407.htm through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed on 2/17/08.

(July 2, 2008). Journal of American Medical Association, Patient page: Acute Coronary Syndrome. (JAMA, Vol 300, No. 1). PDF available for download at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/300/1/132.pdf through http://jama.ama-assn.org. Accessed July 2008.

American Heart Association: What is Acute Coronary Syndrome? Available online at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3010002 through http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed July 2008.

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