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Pharmacogenetic Tests

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Tests: TPMT, Warfarin Sensitivity Testing, Clopidogrel (CYP2C19 Genotyping)
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AACC: Pharmacogenomics
National Institutes of Health: Medicines for You 
National Institute of General Medical Science: Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Genomics and Health, Frequently Asked Questions
Personalized Medicine Coalition
Mayo Clinic: Pharmacogenomics: When medicine gets personal

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

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(June 16, 2010) MayoClinic.com. Pharmacogenomics: When drug treatment becomes personalized medicine. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/personalized-medicine/CA00078 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

(February 20, 2012) Genetics Home Reference. What is pharmacogenomics? Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/genomicresearch/pharmacogenomics through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(September 19, 2011) Human Genome Project Information. Pharmacogenomics. Available online at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml through http://www.ornl.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(February 7, 2009) Avigan M. Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers of Susceptibility to Adverse Drug Reactions: Just Around the Corner or Pie in the Sky? Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/586268 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

(November 11, 2011) Citterio L, Lanzani C, Manunta P. Polymorphisms, Hypertension and Thiazide Diuretics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011;12(11):1587-1604.

(March 31, 2004) National Center for Biotechnology Information. Pharmacogenomics. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/pharm.html through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(February 23, 2012) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch/researchareas/pharmacogenetics/ucm083378.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(October 27, 2011) National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Medicines by Design. Available online at http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign/ through http://publications.nigms.nih.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(©2012) Department of Health and Human Services. Pharmagenomics Knowledge Base. Available online at http://www.pharmgkb.org/index.jsp through http://www.pharmgkb.org. Accessed Feb 2012.

(February 23, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Genomics. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/genomics/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

(2007 August 16). FDA Approves Updated Warfarin (Coumadin) Prescribing Information. FDA News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2007/ucm108967.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

Wood, S. (2007 August 20). New Warfarin Labeling Reminds Physicians About Genetic Tests to Help Guide Initial Warfarin Dosing. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/561608 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

(May 27, 2010) MayoClinic.com. Cytochrome P450 genotyping test. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cyp450-test/MY00135 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

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Waknine, Y. (2005 January 11). FDA Approvals: AmpliChip, Stratis ST, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD, and Others. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. 11/25/07. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/497284 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

Heller, T. et. al. (2006). AmpliChip CYP450 GeneChip: a new gene chip that allows rapid and accurate CYP2D6 genotyping. Medscape from Ther Drug Monit. 2006; 28(5):673-7 [On-line abstract]. Available online at   http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/17038884 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

de Leon, J. et. al. (2006). The AmpliChip CYP450 genotyping test: Integrating a new clinical tool. Medscape from Mol Diagn Ther. 2006; 10(3):135-51 [On-line abstract]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16771600 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Feb 2012.

(2007 June 19). Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff - Pharmacogenetic Tests and Genetic Tests for Heritable Markers. FDA CDRH [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/ucm077862.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed Feb 2012.

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Linnea Baudhuin, Phd, DABMG. Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

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