There is a protective vaccine for anthrax, but it is recommended for use only in high-risk populations, such as military personnel, some veterinarians, and people who work with Bacillus anthracis in laboratories. It is not available to the general public.
If medical intervention begins early, before symptoms become severe, anthrax is treatable with antibiotics. The antibiotics ciprofloxin (Cipro), doxycycline, and amoxicillin are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment, and doxycycline and ciprofloxin are approved for preventive treatment in the case of exposure (or suspected exposure). Because the spores are so long-lived, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend a preventive course of 60 days duration after exposure. Typical treatment courses are also for 60 days.