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Anthrax

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Tests: Blood Culture, CSF Analysis, Pleural Fluid Analysis, Susceptibility Testing, Gram Stain
Conditions: Bioterrorism Agents, Meningitis

Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Emergency Preparedness and Response: Anthrax
CDC: Anthrax
Mayo Clinic: Anthrax
MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Anthrax
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Anthrax
World Health Organization: Anthrax
United States Department of Labor, OSHA: What is Anthrax?

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Cunha, B. (Updated 2014 March 25). Anthrax. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/212127-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated 2013 August 29). Basics, What is anthrax? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/index.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated 2013 August 29). Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently Asked Questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/labs/labtestingfaq.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

Barclay, L. (2014 January 15). Anthrax Guidelines Address Nonpregnant, Pregnant Adults. Medscape Multispecialty [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/819274 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed June 2014.

Vyas, J. (Updated 2013 May 19). Anthrax. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001325.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed June 2014.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 June 9). Anthrax. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anthrax/basics/definition/con-20022705 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed June 2014.

(© 2014). Anthrax. Homeland Security News and Information, The National Terror Alert Response [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthrax/ through http://www.nationalterroralert.com. Accessed June 2014.

(2014 Februrary). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax in Adults. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases CME Activity [On-line information]. Available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_intro through http://wwwnc.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Roche Diagnostics: LightCycler: Kits for microbiology research. Available online through http://www.biochem.roche.com.

Telephone interview. Lee Asse, Mayo Clinic public affairs, 3/8/02.

Telephone interview. Sharon Sheridan, Roche Diagnostics, 4/19/02.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FAQ's about Anthrax and more. Available online at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/Agent/Anthrax/AnthraxGen.asp through http://www.bt.cdc.gov.

CDC. Anthrax. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/anthrax_g.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

CDC. Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov.

Mayo Clinic: What is Anthrax? Available online through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

Mayo Clinic: Biological Warfare: Questions and answers. Available online through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

Medline Plus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Anthrax. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001325.htm.

Journal of the American Medical Association. Anthrax as a biological weapon. Available online at http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v281n18/ffull/jst80027.html through http://jama.ama-assn.org.

CDC. Inhalation anthrax associated with dried animal hides --- Pennsylvania and New York City, 2006. MMWR 55(10) 280-282. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov.

USPS Emergency Preparedness Plan. Protecting Postal Employees and Postal Customers from Exposure to Biohazardous Material and for Ensuring Mail Security Against Bioterror Attacks. March 6, 2002. (Accessed Dec. 2006) PDF available for download at http://www.usps.com/news/2002/epp/emerprepplan.pdf through http://www.usps.com.

(Updated 2009 July 17). Anthrax, General Information. CDC, National Center for Zoonotic Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/anthrax/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 June 9). Anthrax. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/anthrax/DS00422/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed June 2010.

(Updated 2009 December 31). Q & A: Anthrax and Animal Hide Drums. CDC, Emergency Preparedness and Response [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/faq/pelt.asp through http://www.bt.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 May 30). Cutaneous anthrax. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000600.htm. Accessed June 2010.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 May 30). Inhalation anthrax. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000641.htm. Accessed June 2010.

Cunha, B. (Updated 2008 August 18). Anthrax. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/212127-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed June 2010.

Cranmer, H. and Martinez, M. (Updated 2009 October 26). CBRNE-Anthrax Infection. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/830004-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed June 2010.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 161-166.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 281-287.

(Current as of 2010 April 28). What is Anthrax? United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, eTool, [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/anthrax/disease_rec.html through http://www.osha.gov. Accessed July 2010.

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