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Colon Cancer

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On This Site
Tests: Fecal Occult Blood Test, Tumor Markers, CEA, KRAS Mutation, Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy
Conditions: Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Screening: Adults (30-49), Adults (50 and Up)
Features: Anatomic Pathology
In the News: Stool DNA Test Gets Nod from FDA Advisory Committee (2014), Colon Cancer Rates Decline, Highlighting Role of Screening (2014)

Elsewhere On The Web
The American Gastroenterological Association: Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment
National Cancer Institute: Colon and Rectal Cancer
American Cancer Society: Colorectal Cancer: Early Detection
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: Virtual Colonoscopy
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Colorectal (Colon) Cancer
Colon Cancer Alliance 
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC): Colonoscopy
Acrobat-Reader_logo.gifJAMA Patient Page: Colonoscopy 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Colon Cancer Alliance. Guaiac Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT). Available online at http://www.ccalliance.org/screening/fecal-occult-blood-test.html through http://www.ccalliance.org/index.html. Accessed February 2015.

Colorectal Cancer – Predictive Testing for Anti-EGFR Therapy. September 2014. ARUP Laboratories. Available online at http://ltd.aruplab.com/Tests/Pdf/365 through http://ltd.aruplab.com. Accessed February 2015.

Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/basic_info/screening/guidelines.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2015.

Misale, S. et al. June 2012. Emergence of KRAS mutations and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. Nature 2012 Jun 28;486(7404):532-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11156. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722830 through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. Accessed February 2015.

Rokita, M., et. al. July 2013. Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer on the basis of the Allred scoring system. Onco Targets and Therapy. 2014:16.

Stages of Colon Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/colon/Patient/page2#Keypoint7 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed February 2015.

Stool DNA. Colon Cancer Alliance. Available online at http://www.ccalliance.org/screening/stool-dna.html through http://www.ccalliance.org/index.html. Accessed February 2015.

Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps. National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/colorectal-screening through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed February 2015.

Virtual Colonoscopy.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/virtual-colonoscopy/Pages/diagnostic-test.aspx through http://www.niddk.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed February 2015.

What are the key statistics about colorectal cancer? American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics through http://www.cancer.org/index. Accessed February 2015.

(October 15, 2014) Targeted Therapies for Colorectal Cancer. American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-treating-targeted-therapy through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed February 2015.

(October 15, 2014) Colon Cancer Screening Tests. American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-screening-tests-used through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed February 2015.

(October 2008) Colorectal cancer: Screening. United States Preventive Services Task Force. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/colorectal-cancer-screening through http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. Accessed February 2015.

(December 1, 2013) Helwick, Caroline. Time to Think Beyond KRAS in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. The ASCO Post. Volume 4, Issue 19. Available online at http://www.ascopost.com/issues/december-1,-2013/time-to-think-beyond-kras-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer.aspx through http://www.ascopost.com. Accessed April 2015.

Vilar E, Gruber S. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer—the stable evidence. B. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. Advance online publication 9 February 2010; doi:10.1038/nrclinonc.20 09.237. Available online at http://www.mdanderson.org/education-and-research/departments-programs-and-labs/labs/vilar-lab/files/3.pdf through http://www.mdanderson.org. Accessed April 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

AGA (2001). The Facts About Colorectal Cancer. The American Gastroenterological Association [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.gastro.org.

AGA (2001). Clinical Practice Recommendations -- People at Average Risk. The American Gastroenterological Association [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.gastro.org.

CDC (2001, March 9). CDC says colorectal cancer screening rates remain low. Centers for Disease Control [Press Release]. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov.

DHHS (1996). "Screening for Colorectal Cancer" in Guide to Clinical Preventative Services, 2nd Edition, Report of the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [On-line information]. Available online through http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov.

MedlinePlus (Page updated 2002, January 2). Fecal occult blood test (FOBT). MedlinePlus Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007008.htm.

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: Virtual Colonoscopy. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/virtualcolonoscopy/ through http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov.

Levin B et. al, (2008). Screening and Surveillance for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer and Adenomatous Polyps, 2008: A Joint Guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. Published online before print March 5, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 2008. Available online at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/CA.2007.0018v1 through http://caonline.amcancersoc.org. Accessed March 2008.

American Cancer Society. News release, March 5, 2008. Health Groups Issue Updated Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines—Recommendations Include Two New Tests and Preference for Tests that Detect Precancerous Polyps. Available online through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed March 2008.

The Facts About Colorectal Cancer. The American Gastroenterological Association (online information). Available online through http://www.gastro.org.

(February 26, 2007) Gandey A. Colorectal Cancer Screening Improved With Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test. Medscape Medical News (online information). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552714 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2008.

(March 5, 2008) American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer: Early Detection (online information). Available online through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed April 2008.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 244-245.

(Revised 2011 June 24). Colorectal Cancer Early Detection. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003170-pdf.pdf through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed September 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 August 13). Colon Cancer. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/colon-cancer/DS00035 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2011.

(© 2011). Facts about Colorectal Cancer Screening from the American College of Gastroenterology. American College of Gastroenterology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.acg.gi.org/patients/crcfactsheet.asp through http://www.acg.gi.org. Accessed September 2011.

(Revised 2011 August 22). Frequently Asked Questions About Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/FindCancerEarly/ExamandTestDescriptions/faq-colonoscopy-and-sigmoidoscopy through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed September 2011.

Jarboe, E. et. al. (Updated 2011 February). Colorectal Cancer. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/ColorectalCancer.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed September 2011.

National Cancer Institute. Colon and Rectal Cancers. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/colon-and-rectal through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed October 2011.

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