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Diabetes

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Tests: Glucose, Insulin, C-Peptide, Microalbumin, A1c, Cystatin C, Creatinine Clearance, eGFR, HDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, CMP, Lipid Profile, Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Home Tests, Diabetes Autoantibodies, Blood Ketones, Fructosamine
Conditions: Kidney Diseases, Pancreatic Diseases, Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Stroke, Metabolic Syndrome, Acidosis and Alkalosis, Neuropathy, Pregnancy
Screening: Diabetes - Children (2-12), Teens (13-18), Young Adults (19-29), Adults (30-49), Adults (50 and Up)
In the News: Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014), FDA Proposes Two Sets of Standards for Glucose Meters (2014), USPSTF Recommends Screening All Pregnant Women for Gestational Diabetes (2013), CDC: Most People Who Have Prediabetes Don't Know It (2013), Manage Type 2 Diabetes with Personal Approach, say ADA and EASD (2012), Experts Recommend All Admitted to Hospital Have Blood Glucose Testing (2012), Together, Two Tests Better Predictors of Progression to Diabetes (2011), Studies Evaluate A1c for Diagnosing Diabetes (2011), Use of A1c Point-of-Care Tests for Diabetes Screening Raises Concerns (2011)

Elsewhere On The Web
College of American Pathologists: MyHealthTestReminder.com - Diabetes Tests
American Academy of Family Physicians: Diabetes 
Nemours: Diabetes Center 
NIDDK: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
NIDDK: What I Need to Know About Gestational Diabetes
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource
American Diabetes Association
UCSF Diabetes Education Online
American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Myths
Acrobat-Reader_logo.gifJAMA Patient Page: Diabetes 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(Updated 2011 May 5). Basics about Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2011.

(2011). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. CDC [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2011.

(Updated 2010 October). Type 2 Diabetes Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/Pdfs/Type2Diabetes(NIDDK).pdf through http://report.nih.gov. Accessed May 2011.

Khardori, R. (Updated 2011 May 19). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

Moore, T. (Updated 2011 April 13). Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 March 9). Diabetes. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diabetes/DS01121/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed May 2011.

Grenache, D. (Updated 2011 April). Diabetes Mellitus. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/DiabetesMellitus.html#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2011.

Kerr, M. (Updated 2009 June 23) ADA 2009: New Blood Test Bridges Time Gap Between Serum Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/704358 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2011. Diabetes Care January 2011 34:S11-S61. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/Supplement_1/S11.full through http://care.diabetesjournals.org

Metzger BE, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 676-82.

Soures Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(1995-2004). Diabetes Mellitus. The Merck Manual of Medical Information-Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec13/ch165/ch165a.html?qt=Diabetes&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com.

(2005 January). Diagnosis of Diabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, NIH Publication No. 05-4642 [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/index.htm through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Reaccessed 2/20/08.

All About Diabetes. American Diabetes Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp through http://www.diabetes.org. Reaccessed 2/20/08.

National Diabetes Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheet.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Jonnalagadda, S. (2004 February 19). Serum ketones. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003498.htm.

Magee, C. (2005 December 9, Updated). Ketones – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003585.htm.

(2003). Ketone testing. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/diabetes/5_diabetes_keytone.pdf#search='%2C%20ketone%20diabetes' through http://www.nacb.org.

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: National Diabetes Statistics (2005). Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/ through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Recommendations and Rationale: Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (February 2003). Available online at http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/gdm/gdmrr.htm through http://www.ahrq.gov.

American Diabetes Association. Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Jan 2010. Diabetes Care 33: S4-S10.

(January 2010) The Endocrine Society Statement on the use of A1c for Diabetes Diagnosis and Risk Estimation. PDF available for download at http://www.endo-society.org/advocacy/upload/TES-Statement-on-A1C-Use.pdf through http://www.endo-society.org. Accessed January 2010.

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