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Epilepsy

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Laboratory and non-laboratory tests are used to diagnose and monitor epilepsy, to determine what kind(s) of seizures a person is having, to identify underlying conditions such as toxins, infections, drug or alcohol withdrawal, fever (in a child), or diabetes that may be causing seizures, and to distinguish epilepsy from conditions such as fainting or a stroke that may cause some of the same symptoms.

A medical history, input from the patient, and input from family members who have witnessed the seizures are important parts of the diagnostic process. Someone with epilepsy may remember a strange smell, an aura, and/or sensations that precede a seizure but may not remember what has happened during the seizure itself. Depending upon the signs and frequency of a person's seizures, it may take some time to determine the proper diagnosis.

Non-laboratory Tests

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) – the primary diagnostic tool for epilepsy; it is used to evaluate the brain's electrical activity and identify changes in brain wave patterns.

Imaging scans:

  • Computed tomography (CT) – identify brain structure abnormalities and tumors
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – also identify brain abnormalities
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) – radioactive material is used to look at active areas of the brain.
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) – radioactive material is used to identify the region of the brain where seizures originate when it is not clear on other scans.

Laboratory Tests
Laboratory tests are primarily used to monitor anti-epileptic medications and to search for conditions that may cause seizures, such as diabetes, infection, meningitis or encephalitis

Periodic therapeutic drug monitoring is performed when a patient is taking a specific medication to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved. Epileptic medications that are monitored include:

There are some newer second-generation antiepileptic drugs, such as levetiracetam, that do not require routine monitoring but may be tested in order to evaluate and adjust dosage as necessary.

Other testing is done to identify possible causes for seizures, including:

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