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Heart Disease

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Tests: Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Lipid Profile, CK, CK-MB, Myoglobin, Troponin, BNP, Homocysteine, Cardiac Risk Assessment, LDH, hs-CRP, Cardiac Biomarkers
Conditions: Heart Attack, Stroke, Congestive Heart Failure, Angina, Cardiovascular Disease
In the News: Blood Type and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease (2012), HHS Supports Screening Newborns for Congenital Heart Disease (2011)

Elsewhere On The Web
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Heart and Vascular Diseases
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: How the Heart Works
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Heart Diseases
MedlinePlus Health Topics: Heart Diseases – Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease
Women's Health.gov: Heart Health and Stroke 
American Heart Association

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Different Heart Diseases. World Heart Federation. Available online at http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/heart-disease/different-heart-diseases/ through http://www.world-heart-federation.org. Accessed June 24, 2014.

Diseases and Conditions: Hypothyroidism. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/basics/complications/con-20021179 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed June 24, 2014.

Heart Information Center: Heart Anatomy. Texas Heart Institute available online at http://www.texasheartinstitute.org/HIC/Anatomy/anatomy2.cfm through http://www.texasheartinstitute.org/index.cfm. Accessed June 25, 2014.

(July 7, 2014) Heart Disease Facts. Centers for Disease Control. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2014.

McGrath, Monica Forero, et. al. 2005. The endocrine function of the heart. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. Vol. 15., Issue 10.

What is Atrial Fibrillation? American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/AboutArrhythmia/What-is-Atrial-Fibrillation-AFib-or-AF_UCM_423748_Article.jsp through http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/. Accessed June 25, 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2003 October 2, Updated). Facts About Coronary Heart Disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/other/chdfacts2.htm through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

Toscano, J. (2003 March 11, Updated). Angina: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. Available online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/3/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

(1994) When You Need to Have a Stress Test: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. Available online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/23/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

(2001 August 31). Angioplasty: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. Available online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/17/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

Cardiac Catheterization: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. Available online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/8/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

Toscano, J. (2003 March 11). Cardiac Enlargement: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. Available online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/4/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

(2001 August 28). Congestive Heart Failure: A Patient Guide. HeartInfo.org [On-line Patient Guide]. vailable online at http://www.heartinfo.org/ms/guides/18/main.html through http://www.heartinfo.org.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2003 May 29). Chest X-rays: Helping detect heart and lung conditions. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=HB00019 through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

Cardiovascular Disorders, [General]. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 16, Chapter 202. Coronary Artery Disease [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section16/chapter202/202a.jsp through http://www.merck.com.

Congenital Anomalies. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 19. Pediatrics, Chapter 261. [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.

Infective Endocarditis. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 16. Cardiovascular Disorders, Chapter 208. Endocarditis [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.

What is Heart Failure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hf/HF_All.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

What is Coronary Artery Disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_All.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

What is a Heart Attack? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/HeartAttack/HeartAttack_All.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

A.D.A.M., Updated (2003 February 27, Updated). Heart disease. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000147.htm.

Robert H. Christenson, Ph.D., DABCC, FACB. Professor of Pathology, Professor of Medical and Research Technology Director, Rapid Response Laboratories, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Tanser, P. (2006 February, Revision). Effects of Aging. Merck Manual of Medical Information – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec03/ch020/ch020d.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 6/28/07.

Tanser, P. (2006 February, Revision). Heart. Merck Manual of Medical Information – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec03/ch020/ch020b.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 6/28/07.

(2007 February 09, Review). About Heart Disease. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/HeartDisease/about.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 6/28/07.

(2007 February 09, Review). Heart Disease Risk Factors. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/HeartDisease/risk_factors.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 6/28/07.

(2007 February 09, Review). Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/HeartDisease/signs_symptoms.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 6/28/07.

Desvigne-Nickens, P, (2007 February, Reviewed). Heart Disease, Frequently Asked Questions. WomensHealth.gov [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.4woman.gov/faq/heartdis.htm through http://www.4woman.gov. Accessed on 7/9/07.

(2005 August 5). Cardiovascular disease 101: Know your heart and blood vessels. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cardiovascular-disease/HB00032 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed on 7/9/07.

(2005 November, Revision). Cardiovascular Tests and Procedures, Introduction, Cardiac Catheterization, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Echocardiography, Electrocardiography, Electrophysiologic Studies, Imaging Tests, Percutaneous Coronary Interventions, Radionuclide Imaging, Stress Testing, Tilt Table Testing. Merck Manual for HealthCare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec07/ch070/ch070a.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 7/9/07.

(Updated 2011 January 26). What is Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Caregiver/Resources/WhatisCardiovascularDisease/What-is-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_301852_Article.jsp through http://www.heart.org. Accessed April 2011.

Boudi, F.B. (Updated 2011 March 29). Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/164163-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2011.

Roberts, W. (Updated 2011 February). Cardiovascular Disease (Traditional Risk Markers) - Risk Markers - CVD (Traditional). ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/CVDRiskMarkerTrad.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed April 2011.

Delgado, J. et. al. (Updated 2011 February). Cardiovascular Disease (Non-traditional Risk Markers) - Risk Markers - CVD (Non-traditional) ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/CVDRiskMarkerNontrad.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed April 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 January 12). Heart Disease. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/DS01120/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed April 2011.

Riaz, K. and Aqeel, A. (Updated 2011 March 29). Hypertensive Heart Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162449-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2011.

Nghiem, H. (2011 February 18). Threshold for 'High Risk' Reduced in New AHA Guidance on CVD Prevention for Women CME. Medscape Education from Heartwire CME [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/737657 through http://www.medscape.org. Accessed April 2011.

Siemens. High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) Assay. Available online at http://www.medical.siemens.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PSGenericDisplay~q_catalogId~e_-101~a_langId~e_-101~a_pageId~e_111726~a_storeId~e_10001.htm through http://www.medical.siemens.com. Accessed September 2011.

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