Hepatitis

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Tests: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel, Liver Panel, AST, ALP, ALT, Albumin, Bilirubin, PT, Total Protein, Autoantibodies, ANA, SMA, Anti-LKM-1, Iron Tests, Copper, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin, Acetaminophen, Ethanol, Drugs of Abuse, Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Conditions: Jaundice, Alcoholism, Liver Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, Autoimmune Disorders, Cirrhosis, Pregnancy, Wilson Disease, Hemochromatosis
Screening: Hepatitis B: Newborns, Hepatitis C: Adults, Adults 50 and Up
In the News: Hepatitis C Follow-Up Testing Recommended for All Positive Screening Tests (2013), Federal Task Force Now Advises More Screening for HIV and Hepatitis C (2013), New CDC Reports Urge Age-Based Screening to Reduce Rising Tide of Hepatitis C Deaths among Baby-Boomer Generation (2012)

Elsewhere On The Web
National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse: Hepatitis
American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: Patient Information
CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Viral Hepatitis
Wilson's Disease Association
Mayo Clinic: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
American Hemachromatosis Society: Testing and Treatment
UCSF Medical Center: Toxic Hepatitis
National Human Genome Research Institute: Alpha 1 antitrypsin Deficiency

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Statistics & Surveillance. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/2011Surveillance/Commentary.htm#hepB through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 9/1/2013.

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/nash/#treatment through http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed 9/2/2013.

Fischbach, F.T., (2004) A Manual of Laboratory & Diagnostic Tests. 7th Edition., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2011, Pp 308-309.

(February 16, 2012) National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/autoimmunehep/ through http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed October 2013.

(October 4, 2011) American Liver Foundation. Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/aihep/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed October 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp 884-886.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 477-480.

(2005 January 15, Reviewed). Viral Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/fact.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(© 2005) Hepatitis and Liver Disease in the United States. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1008 through http://www.liverfoundation.org.

(© 2002-2003) Hepatitis A Factsheet. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1061 through http://www.liverfoundation.org.

(© 2002-2003) What is Autoimmune Hepatitis? American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1011 through http://www.liverfoundation.org.

(© 2002-2003) Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1056 through http://www.liverfoundation.org.

(2005 January 15, reviewed). Interpretation of the Hepatitis B Panel CDC. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/Bserology.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(2005 January 15, reviewed). Hepatitis C Fact Sheet, CDC. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/fact.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(© 2005). Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_291a.jsp#1150957 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

Hart, J. (2003 October 3). Hepatitis. MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001154.htm.

(© 2005). ARUP Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_290a.jsp#1150939 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

Owens, T. (2005 February 9, Updated). Ceruloplasmin. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003662.htm.

(© 2005). Ceruloplasmin. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a162.jsp through http://www.aruplab.com.

(© 2002-2006). Ceruloplasmin (Cp) TECHNICAL UPDATE. Interpath Laboratory [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.interpathlab.com/TechnicalUpdates/ceruloplasmin.htm through http://www.interpathlab.com.

Twomey, P. et. al. (2005). Relationship between Serum Copper, Ceruloplasmin, and Non–Ceruloplasmin-Bound Copper in Routine Clinical Practice. Clinical Chemistry. 2005;51:1558-1559 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/51/8/1558 through http://www.clinchem.org.

About Wilson's Disease. Wilson's Disease Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.wilsonsdisease.org/about%20wilsons%20disease.html through http://www.wilsonsdisease.org.

(© 2005) Wilson Disease Screening Panel, Serum. ARUP's User's Guide [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/ug/tests/0020598.jsp through http://www.arup-lab.com.

(© 2005) Free Copper (Direct) in Serum Ultrafiltrate. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a278.jsp#5461569 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

(© 2005) Copper and Copper-Ceruloplasmin Index. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_alp9.jsp#1155978 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

(June 13, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis A. Available online at http://cdc.gov/hepatitis/HAV/HAVfaq.htm#general through http://cdc.gov. Accessed September 2009.

(July 8, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B. Available online at http://cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/HBVfaq.htm#overview through http://cdc.gov. Accessed September 2009.

(July 21, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C, FAQs for Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm#section1 through http://cdc.gov. Accessed September 2009.

(December 17, 2008) Mayo Clinic. Toxic hepatitis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/toxic-hepatitis/DS00811 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2009.

(Updated May 8, 2007) UCSF Medical Center. Toxic Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.ucsfhealth.org/adult/medical_services/liver/toxic/conditions/toxichep/treatments.html through http://www.ucsfhealth.org. Accessed September 2009.

(June 4, 2009) Mehta, N, et al. Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity. eMedicine. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/169814-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/alphaone/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed September 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Wilson's Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/wilson/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed September 2009.

(March 14, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Hemachromatosis. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/hemochromatosis/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed September 2009.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and the Liver. No. 19 PH 329 January 1993. Available online at http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa19.htm through http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. Accessed November 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Alcohol-induce Liver Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/alcohol/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed June 2009.

(September 12, 2008) Mayoclinic.com. Hemachromatosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hemochromatosis/DS00455 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2009.

(February 19, 2009) Mayoclinic.com. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/DS00577 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed October 2009.

(September 27, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Fatty Liver. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/fattyliver/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed October 2009.

(February 28, 2007) McAvoy N, et al. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Natural History, Pathogenisis and Treatment. Medscape Today from British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2006;6(6):251-260. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552003 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

(August 22, 2008) Younossi Z. Review Article: Current Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Medscape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/578709 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

(September 12, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Autoimmune hepatitis. Available onlien at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/aihep/ through http://www.liverfoundation.org. Accessed October 2009.

National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse. Autoimmune hepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/autoimmunehep/ through http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed October 2009.

University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health. Health Information: Autoimmune liver disease panel. Available online at http://apps.uwhealth.org/health/hie/1/003328.htm through http://apps.uwhealth.org. Accessed October 2009.

(May 23, 2006) Czaja A. Autoimmune Hepatitis - Approach to Diagnosis, MedScape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/524097 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. Kasper D, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, eds. McGraw-Hill, 2005 Pp 1822-1828, 1838-1841, 1869-1872.

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