Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Tests: HIV Antibody, CD4 and CD8, HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing, HIV Viral Load, p24 Antigen
Conditions: Pneumonia, Fungal Infections, Tuberculosis, STDs
Screening: Pregnancy, Newborns, Teens, Young Adults, Adults, Adults 50+
In the News: New HIV Testing Strategy Improves Detection of Early, Acute Infections, Studies Find (2013), Federal Task Force Now Advises More Screening for HIV and Hepatitis C (2013), CDC Announces Pilot Project for HIV Testing at Pharmacy Retail Clinics (2012), Testing Critical to Reducing HIV, FDA Panel Recommends Approving Test for Home Use (2012), Pediatricians Endorse HIV Screening for All Teens Who Live in High Risk Areas (2011), Out of Africa: Promising New Rapid Point-of-Care Technology (2011)

Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS
CDC: Living with HIV/AIDS
CDC HIV/AIDS Facts: HIV/AIDS in the United States
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AIDSinfo
AIDS.gov
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
UNAIDS, The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
Familydoctor.org: HIV and AIDS  
Kidshealth.org: HIV and AIDS 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used for Current Review

(Updated 2011 January 31) Understanding HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/TOPICS/HIVAIDS/UNDERSTANDING/Pages/Default.aspx through http://www.niaid.nih.gov. Accessed May 2012.

(Reviewed 2012 March 14). HIV in the United States. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2012.

(Reviewed 2011 August 11). HIV/AIDS Statistics and Surveillance, Basic Statistics. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2012.

Bennett, N. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2012 June 18). Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed June 2012.

Yin, S. (2011 August 5). CDC: Gay and Bisexual Men Comprise 61% of New HIV Infections. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/747611 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 October 20). HIV/AIDS. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed May 2012.

Barclay, L. (2011 October 31). AAP Recommends Routine HIV Testing for Adolescents. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/752570 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2012.

(Updated 2010 November). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIV.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2012.

Sources Used for Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Janice K. Pinson MT, MBA. Molecular Business Strategies, Birmingham, MI.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 23-27, 535-538, and 1036-1037.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 487-490.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1595-1596.

(2008 January 29). New Report Provides Information on HIV Prevalence in the U.S. Household Population. CDC Press Release [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/2008/r080129.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 February 7, Updated). AIDS/HIV, What are AIDS and HIV? National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/aids_hiv.cfm through http://www.nichd.nih.gov. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2007 January 2, Modified). How HIV Tests Work. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/testing/resources/qa/tests_work.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 April 10, Updated). Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aids/detail_aids.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 February 21, Updated). HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [On-line information]. Available online at http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/healthscience/healthtopics/HIVAIDS/default.htm through http://www3.niaid.nih.gov. Accessed on 4/12/08.

Branson, B., Duffus, W. and Jordan, W. (2008 March 31). Opt-out HIV Testing as a Public Health Tool. Medscape [On-line CME/CE]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/572209 through http://www.medscape.com.

Hernández, D. and Frye, R. (2007 June 11, Updated). Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/ped/TOPIC1027.HTM through http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 January 29). Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. January 29, 2008; 1-128. [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/ContentFiles/AdultandAdolescentGL.pdf through http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov. Accessed on 5/4/08.

(May 8, 2008). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Infection Reporting. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/reporting.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2008.

(August 3, 2008). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS in the United States. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2008.

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