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Kidney Disease

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In the News: Study Says Fasting Necessary for Creatinine Testing (2013), NGAL Shows Promise as Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
American Association of Kidney Patients
National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases: National Kidney Disease Education Program
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearninghouse: They Kidneys and How They Work
National Kidney Foundation Information Center
The Life Options Rehabilitation Program
Kidney School
Home Dialysis Central
Davita: How Kidneys Work

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 359-369.

(Updated 2012 March 23). The Kidneys and How They Work. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/ through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed July 2013.

Arora, P. (2013 June 25). Chronic Kidney Disease Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238798-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2013.

O'Riordan, M. (2012 October 2). Chronic Kidney Disease Ups Mortality, ESRD--Both With, Without HTN or Diabetes. Medscape Today News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/771939 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed July 2013.

Sanjeev Gulati, S. (Updated 2012 September 28). Chronic Kidney Disease in Children. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/984358-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2013.

Delgado, J. and Straseski, J. (Updated 2012 September). Renal Function Markers - Kidney Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/RenalFunctionMarkers.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed July 2013.

McMillan, J. (Revised 2013 April). Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure). Merk Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed July 2013.

(March 28, 2102). National Kidney Education Program. Identify and Evaluate Patients with CKD. Available online at http://nkdep.nih.gov/identify-manage/evaluate-patients.shtml through http://nkdep.nih.gov. Accessed January 2014.

National Kidney Disease Education Program. Kidney Disease Basics. Available online at http://nkdep.nih.gov/learn/kidney-disease-basics.shtml through http://nkdep.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease: Causes. Available online at http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneydiscauses.cfm through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed March 2014.

National Kidney Foundation. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in the United States. Available online at http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/AcuteKidneyInjury.cfm through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed March 2014.

National Kidney Foundation. About Chronic Kidney Disease. Available online at http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/aboutckd.cfm through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed March 2014.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys). Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/analgesicnephropathy/index.aspx through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/nephrotic/ through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

NIH MedlinePlus. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter08/articles/winter08pg9-10.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus. Kidney Diseases. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kidneydiseases.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Glomerulonephritis. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000484.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Acute kidney failure. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000501.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Interstitial nephritis. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000464.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Acute tubular necrosis. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000512.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Nephrotic syndrome. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000490.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2014.

Mayo Clinic. Acute kidney failure. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/kidney-failure/DS00280 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed March 2014.

Mayo Clinic. Nephrotic syndrome. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/nephrotic-syndrome/basics/definition/CON-20033385?p=1 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed March 2014.

American Cancer Society. What is kidney cancer? Available online at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidneycancer/detailedguide/kidney-cancer-adult-what-is-kidney-cancer through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed March 2014.

FamilyDoctor.org. Interstitial Nephritis. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/interstitial-nephritis.printerview.all.html through http://familydoctor.org. Accessed March 2014.

WebMd. Understanding Kidney Disease -- the Basics. Available online at http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-kidney-disease-basic-information through http://www.webmd.com. Accessed March 2014.

HealthCentral. Kidney Diseases. Available online at http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/408/55.html through http://www.healthcentral.com. Accessed March 2014.

Greg Miller, Ph.D. Professor of Pathology, Director of Clinical Chemistry, Director of Pathology Information Systems, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

American College of Physicians Complete Home Medical Guide. Goldmann DR, editor. 1999. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. Pp. 694-708, 1037.

Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Komaroff I. 1999. New York: Simon & Schuster, Pp. 810-825.

Johns Hopkins Family Health Book. Klag MJ, editor. 1999. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Pp. 1069, 1078-1095.

Kidney Failure: the Facts. Cameron S. 1998. New York: Oxford University Press, Pp. 2-5, 8-10, 15-28.

National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health web site. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/kidney/kidney.htm through http://www.niddk.nih.gov.

American Kidney Fund, Inc. Available online at http://www.akfinc.org/KidneyFacts through http://www.akfinc.org.

NKUDIC: The Kidneys and How They Work. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/ through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2009.

Giles PD, Rylance PB, Crothers DC. New results from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study: the importance of clinical outcomes in test strategies for early chronic kidney disease. QJM. 2008 Feb;101(2):155-8. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Features - Protect Your Kidneys: Control Diabetes, Blood Pressure. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/features/worldkidneyday/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2013.

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