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Neural Tube Defects

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On This Site
Tests: Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening, Vitamin B12 & Folate, Amniotic Fluid Analysis
Conditions: Pregnancy
In the News: Study Shows Reduced Complications from Spina bifida Following in utero Surgery (2011)

Elsewhere On The Web
Spina Bifida Association
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Spina Bifida Fact Sheet
March of Dimes: Spina Bifida
National Institute of Child Health & Human Development: Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)
CDC: Facts about Folic Acid

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Adzick, S. et al. 2011. A Randomized Trial of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele. The New England Journal of Medicine. Available online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1014379#t=articleBackground through http://www.nejm.org. Accessed July 30, 2014.

Birth Defects. March of Dimes. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/neural-tube-defects.aspx through http://www.marchofdimes.com/index.aspx. Accessed July 29, 2014.

Disease and Conditions: Spina bifida. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/spina-bifida/basics/complications/con-20035356 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed July 29, 2014.

Driscoll, D. and Gross, S. 2009. Screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects. Genetics in Medicine vol. 11. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111043/ through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed July 30, 2014.

Ellenbogen, R. 2012. Neural Tube Defects in the Neonatal Period Workup. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1825866-workup through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed July 30, 2014.

Facts about anecephaly. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/anencephaly.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed July 29, 2014.

Spina Bifida Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/spina_bifida/detail_spina_bifida.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov/index.htm. Accessed July 30, 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2005 June). Spotlight on Spina Bifida. Spina Bifida Association [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.sbaa.org. Accessed on 3/2/07.

(2005 September). Spina Bifida. NeurosurgeryToday.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.neurosurgerytoday.org/what/patient_e/spina.asp through http://www.neurosurgerytoday.org. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 March 1). Spina Bifida Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/spina_bifida/detail_spina_bifida.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

Brand, M. C. (2006 September 20). Part 2: Examining the Newborn With an Open Spinal Dysraphism. Medscape from Advances in Neonatal Care [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543524_2 through http://www.medscape.com.

(2007 February 12, Updated). Chiari Malformation Fact Sheet. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chiari/detail_chiari.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 14, Updated). Cephalic Disorders Fact Sheet. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cephalic_disorders/detail_cephalic_disorders.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 08, Updated). NINDS Anencephaly Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/anencephaly/anencephaly.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 12, Updated). NINDS Encephaloceles Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephaloceles/encephaloceles.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 13, Updated). NINDS Hydranencephaly Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydranencephaly/hydranencephaly.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 13, Updated). NINDS Iniencephaly Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/iniencephaly/Iniencephaly.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 14, Updated). NINDS Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tethered_cord/tethered_cord.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/3/07.

(2007 February 19, Updated). Neural Tube Defects. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/neural_tube_defects.cfm/ through http://www.nichd.nih.gov. Accessed on 3/04/07.

(2003 February, Revision). Prenatal Diagnostic Testing. Merck Manual Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec22/ch256/ch256c.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 3/04/07.

(2004 June). Maternal Blood Screening for Down Syndrome and Neural Tube Defects. March of Dimes [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/681_1166.asp through http://www.marchofdimes.com. Accessed on 2/17/07.

(2006 January). The Second Trimester. womenshealth.gov [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/pregnancy/2nd.cfm through http://www.womenshealth.gov. Accessed on 2/25/07.

Liptak, G. (2006 April, Revised). Brain and Spinal Cord Defects. Merck Manual Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec23/ch265/ch265h.html through http://www.merck.com.

Kaufman, B. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2004; 51: 389-419.

Jallo, G. and Becske, T. (Updated 2010 August 13). Neural Tube Defects. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1177162-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2011.

(© 1996-2011). Spina Bifida. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Latest News and Events [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.chop.edu/healthinfo/spina-bifida.html through http://www.chop.edu. Accessed March 2011.

Moore, A. (2011 February 9). Fetal Surgery Takes a Huge Step Forward in Treating Children with Spina Bifida. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Latest News and Events [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.chop.edu/news/fetal-surgery-improves-outcomes-in-spina-bifida.html through http://www.chop.edu. Accessed March 2011.

Ashwood, E. et. al. (Updated 2010 December). Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/PrenatalScreenDx.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed March 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 February 16). Spina bifida. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/spina-bifida/DS00417 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2011

Liptak, G. (Revised 2009 September) Spina Bifida. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/print/sec19/ch292/ch292c.html through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed March 2011.

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