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Tests: ALP, Bone Markers, Vitamin D
Conditions: Menopause
Screening: Adults (50 and up)
In the News: The Endocrine Society Weighs in on Vitamin D (2011), Vitamin D and Calcium Levels Adequate for Most Americans, Report Says (2011)

Elsewhere On The Web
National Osteoporosis Foundation  
CDC: Calcium and Bone Health 
NIAMS: Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases 
MedlinePlus Medical Encylopedia: Osteoporosis 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

National Osteoporosis Foundation. About Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/whatwomencando/introduction through http://www.nof.org. Accessed September 2012.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Why Bone Health is Important. Available online at http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/bonebasics/whybonehealth through http://www.nof.org. Accessed September 2012.

National Osteoporosis Foundation on Bone Mineral Density Testing. Available online at http://www.nof.org/node/501 through http://www.nof.org. Accessed September 2012. 

NIAMS. Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/ through http://www.niams.nih.gov. Accessed September 2012.

NIAMS. Fast Facts About Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/osteoporosis_ff.asp through http://www.niams.nih.gov. Accessed September 2012. 

USPSTF. Screening for Osteoporosis. Release Date: January 2011. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsoste.htm through http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. Accessed September 2012. 

ACOG. Osteoporosis Guidelines Issued. Bone Health Counseling Begins in Adolescence. August 21, 2012. Available onlne at http://www.acog.org/About_ACOG/News_Room/News_Releases/2012/Osteoporosis_Guidelines_Issued through http://www.acog.org. Accessed September 2012. 

Bone Markers in Osteoporosis. Medscape. Updated Jan 3, 2012. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/128567-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2012. 

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(2005 June, Revised). Osteoporosis Overview. NIAMS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/hi/overview.htm through http://www.niams.nih.gov.

(2005 November, Revised). Osteoporosis: The Diagnosis. NIAMS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/hi/osteoporosis_diagnosis.htm through http://www.niams.nih.gov.

Amin, S. (2004 May, Updated). Osteoporosis. American College of Rheumatology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.rheumatology.org/public/factsheets/osteopor_new.asp?aud=pat through http://www.rheumatology.org.

(© 2006). Fast Facts. National Osteoporosis Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/diseasefacts.htm through http://www.nof.org.

(2005 October 5). Bone density test: Measure your risk of osteoporosis. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bone-density-tests/WO00024 through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

Sheryl L. Follin, Laura B. Hansen (Posted 05/01/2003). Current Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis from American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/453035 through http://www.medscape.com.

WebMD A to Z Health Guide from WebMD: Medical Tests, Bone Scan (July 2006-Online information). Available online at http://www.webmd.com/hw/health_guide_atoz/hw200283.asp through http://www.webmd.com.

WebMD A to Z Health Guide from WebMD: Medical Tests, Bone Mineral Density (August 2006-Online information). Available online at http://www.webmd.com/hw/osteoporosis/hw3738.asp through http://www.webmd.com.

Vesper, H. (2005 August 10). Analytical and Preanalytical Issues in Measurement of Biochemical Bone Markers. Medscape from Laboratory Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/509097 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 12/9/07.

Srivastava, A. (2005 July 22). Clinical Use of Serum and Urine Bone Markers in the Management of Osteoporosis. Medscape Current Medical Research and Opinion [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/508542 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 12/9/07.

(2006 July). Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide. ARUP Technical Bulletin [On-line information]. Accessed on: 12/9/07. PDF available for download through http://www.aruplab.com.

Cundy, T. et. al. (2007 April 13). Bone Formation Markers in Adults with Mild Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Clinical Chemistry 2007; 53:1109-1114 [On-line abstract]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/6/1109 through http://www.clinchem.org. Accessed on 12/9/07.

Garnero, P. et al. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Serum Assay for Total N-Terminal Propetide of Type I Collagen in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Clinical Chemistry 2008; 54:1, Pp. 188-196.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Fast Facts on Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/diseasefacts.htm through http://www.nof.org. Accessed March 7, 2009.

NIAMS. Osteoporosis Overview. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/default.asp through http://www.niams.nih.gov.

Sweet MG, Sweet JM, Jeremiah MP, Galazka SS. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Feb 1;79(3):193-200. Available online through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION RELEASES NEW CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LOW BONE MASS AND OSTEOPOROSIS INCORPORATING ABSOLUTE FRACTURE RISK, Washington, DC (February 21, 2008). Available online at http://www.nof.org/news/pressreleases/Clinician_Guide_release.htm.

(May 15, 2006) Dolan C, et. al. Associations Between Body Composition, Anthropometry and Mortality in Women of Age 65 and Older. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(5):913-918. Medscape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556519 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

Tanita. Body Composition Analyzer (FDA cleared). Available online at http://www.tanita.com/en/body-composition-analyzer/ through http://www.tanita.com. Accessed October 2009.

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