The treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism is surgery. If a person has a benign growth (adenoma), the affected parathyroid gland is removed. If a person has hyperplasia, then 3 to 3.5 parathyroid glands are usually removed and the remaining gland or portion of a gland may be transplanted to a person's forearm. Parathyroid cancer is also treated through surgery.
For secondary hyperparathyroidism, it is important to treat the underlying condition, which is most often kidney disease.
Patients with hypoparathyroidism are treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation. If it is due to a temporary condition, such as "hungry bones" or a newborn whose mother had hyperparathyroidism, then monitoring of calcium levels may be required until the situation resolves.