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Pneumonia

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Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia Can Be Prevented – Vaccines Can Help
Canadian Lung Association: Bacterial pneumonia
American Lung Association: Understanding Pneumonia
National Heart Lung Blood Institute: What is Pneumonia? 
World Health Organization: Pneumonia 
Cleveland Clinic: Pneumonia 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Burillo, A., Bouza, E. Chlamydophila pneumonia. March 2010. Infectious Diseases Clinicians of North America. Available online http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171546 through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed May 26, 2014.

Cunha, Burke A. April 3, 2014. Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/234240-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 26, 2014.

Kamangar, Nader. November 18, 2013. Bacterial Pneumonia: Practice Essentials. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300157-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 26, 2014.

Kelland, Kate. Oct. 23, 2013. Rising drug resistance threatens global progress against TB. Reuters. Available online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/23/us-tuberculosis-global-idUSBRE99M07P20131023 through http://www.reuters.com. Accessed May 20, 2014.

Mosenifar, Zab. March 17, 2014. Viral Pneumonia. Medscape Reference available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300455-overview through http://www.emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 26, 2014.

Rubinstein, Ethan, Kollef, Marin H., Nathwani, Dilip. 2008. Pneumonia Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infectious Disease Society of America. Oxford University Press. Available online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/Supplement_5/S378.full through http://cid.oxfordjournals.org. Accessed April 25, 2014.

Klebsiella pneumonia in Healthcare Settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/klebsiella/klebsiella.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 25, 2014.

Mycoplasma pneumonia Infection. February 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/mycoplasma/index.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 25, 2014.

Pneumonia: Also called Bronchopneumonia. April 2014. MedlinePlus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/pneumonia.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed April 24, 2014.

What is Pneumonia? March 2011. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/ through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed April 23, 2014.

(February 7, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumonia. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2014.

(December 27, 2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adenovirus. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/adenovirus/about/overview.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2014.

(November 22, 2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreaks of Human Metapneumovirus in Two Skilled Nursing Facilities — West Virginia and Idaho, 2011–2012. MMWR, 62(46);909-913. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6246a1.htm?s_cid=mm6246a1_w through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2014.

Bousbia S, Raoult D, La Scola B. Pneumonia Pathogen Detection and Microbial Interactions in Polymicrobial Episodes. Future Microbiol. 2013;8(5):633-660. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/804600_1 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed June 2014.

Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th edition, Volume 2, Pg 1401. 2011. ASM Press, Washington DC.

World Health Organization. Media Centre. Top 10 Causes of Death. Available online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/ through http://www.who.int. Accessed June 2014.

(November 2013) World Health Organization. Pneumonia Factsheet. Avaialble online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/ through http://www.who.int. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated February 28, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumonia Faststats. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/pneumonia.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated June 6, 2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal Disease. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/clinicians/clinical-features.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated April 2, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About Haemophilus influenzae Disease. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hi-disease/about/index.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

(Updated June 13, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Plague. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/plague/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(© 2010). Understanding Pneumonia, American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/lung-disease/pneumonia/understanding-pneumonia.html through http://www.lungusa.org. Accessed May 2010.

Cunha, B. (Updated 2010 April 14). Pneumonia, Community-Acquired. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/234240-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Kuhn, G. (Updated 2009 June 11). Pneumonia, Viral. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/808013-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Stephen, J. (Updated 2010 April 6). Bacterial Pneumonia eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/807707-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 May 9). Pneumonia. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pneumonia/DS00135 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed May 2010.

Polverino, E. and Torres, A. (2009 July 31). Diagnostic Strategies for Healthcare-associated Pneumonia. Medscape from Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;30(1):36-45. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/705200 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bennett, N. et. al. (Updated 2010 February 26). Pneumonia. eMedicine Pediatrics [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967822-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Wallace, D. et. al. (Updated 2009 May 29). Pneumonia, Immunocompromised. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/807846-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Pneumonia Introduction. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052a.html?qt=Pneumonia&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Aspiration Pneumonitis and Pneumonia. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052f.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052b.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052c.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Nursing Home–Acquired Pneumonia. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052d.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Bartlett, J. (Revised 2008 May). Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec05/ch052/ch052e.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed May 2010.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 802-806.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 1528-1540.

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