Proteinuria

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On This Site
Tests: Urine Protein, Urinalysis, Albumin, Microalbumin, Protein Electrophoresis, Total Protein, eGFR (Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate), BUN, Creatinine, Creatinine Clearance
Conditions: Kidney Disease, Diabetes, Hypertension, Pregnancy, Multiple Myeloma, Autoimmune Disorders, Hemolytic Anemia
In the News: OB/GYNs Say High Urine Protein No Longer Necessary for Preeclampsia Diagnosis (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
Davita: How kidneys work 
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Proteinuria
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Your Kidneys and How They Work
National Kidney Foundation: What You Should Know About Proteinuria
Preeclampsia Foundation: About Preeclampsia
American Diabetes Association: Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)
March of Dimes: High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(Updated 2010 September 9). Your Kidneys and How They Work. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 9 September 2011.

(Updated 2010 September 2). Proteinuria. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 9 September 2011.

(Updated 2010 September 2). Glomerular Diseases. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 9 September 2011.

Steegers, E.A.P., et al. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2010: 376: 631–44 DOI:10.1016/S0140.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 4th Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2010.

L Van Leeuwen A.M., Poelhius-Leth, D.J. Davis's Comprehensive Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests With Nursing Implications. 3rd Edition, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2009.

American Diabetes Association. Executive Summary: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2012. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_1/S4.full through http://care.diabetesjournals.org. Accessed Feb 2012.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 775-779.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 313-317.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 916-918.

(2006 September). Proteinuria. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2005 November). Your Kidneys and How They Work. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2006 April). Glomerular Diseases. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2005 August). High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

Charytan, D. (2006 November 30, Updated). Diabetic Nephropathy. MedlinePlus Medical Enyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000494.htm. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2007 July). Solitary Kidney. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2007 February). Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/10/08.

Carroll, M. and Temte, J. (2000 September 15). Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(© 2002). K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed on 2/10/08.

(2007 August 2, Updated). About Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia Foundation [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.preeclampsia.org. Accessed on 2/10/08.

Davita. Patient education, Kidney Disease: "How Kidneys Work" (online information). Available online at http://www.davita.com/kidney_animation/#intro through http://www.davita.com. Accessed April 2008.

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