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Staph Wound Infections and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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Tests: MRSA Screening, Blood Culture, Gram Stain, Vancomycin, Bacterial Wound Culture, Sputum Culture, Synovial Fluid Analysis, Susceptibility Testing
Conditions: Septic Arthritis, Wound and Skin Infections, Pneumonia, Sepsis
In the News: MRSA Prevention Strategies Analyzed, Screening Policies Challenged (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
CDC: MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
CDC: Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus (VISA/VRSA) in Healthcare Settings 
KidsHealth for Parents: Staphylococcus aureus
TeensHealth by Nemours Foundation: Staphylococcal (Staph) Skin Infections
American Academy of Family Physicians: MRSA 
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Understanding Antimicrobial Resistance
Acrobat-Reader_logo.gifCDC: FAQs about MRSA

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

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Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 June 9) Staph infections. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/staph-infections/DS00973/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed June 2011.

Delgado, J. and Fisher, M. (Updated 2010 October). Staphylococcal Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/StaphylococcalDz.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed June 2011.

(2010 December 2). Diagnosis and Testing of MRSA Infections. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/diagnosis/index.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2011.

Bush, L. et. al. (Revised 2009 December). Staphylococcal Infections. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec14/ch171/ch171c.html through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed June 2011.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 1052-1053.

(January 2, 2008) U.S. Food and Drug Administration Press Release. FDA Clears First Quick Test For Drug-Resistant Staph Infections Test Identifies MRSA Bacterium in Two Hours. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm161552.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed Sept 2011.

(May 6, 2011) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Press Release, FDA clears first test to quickly diagnose and distinguish MRSA and MSSA. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm254512.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed Sept 2011.

(May 18, 2011) Diekemma D. Using Viruses to Detect MRSA and MSSA in Blood Cultures. Journal Watch Infectious Diseases. Available online at http://infectious-diseases.jwatch.org/cgi/content/short/2011/518/1 through http://infectious-diseases.jwatch.org. Accessed Sept 2011.

Susan S. Huang, et al. Targeted versus Universal Decolonization to Prevent ICU Infection. NEJM 368;24. June 13, 2103.

Landro, L. New Tack in Preventing Hospital Infections: Germ-Killing Soap-Ointment Treatment for all ICU Patients Shown to Be More Effective Than Isolating Some After Screening. Wall Street Journal. Thursday, May 30, 2013, page A7. Available online at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324682204578513393292747314.html through http://online.wsj.com. Accessed July 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

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Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Zinderman, C., et. al. (2004 May 18). Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Military Recruits. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 10(5):941-944, 2004 [On-line article ]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/474843 through http://www.medscape.com.

Shiima, S. and Donahoe, L. (2004 April). Bacterial resistance: How to detect three types. MLO [On-line journal]. Available online through http://www.mlo-online.com.

(2003 September 3). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Competitive Sports Participants - Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000-2003. MMWR 52(33):793-795, 2003 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460667 through http://www.medscape.com.

Koonce, J. (2002). Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA): A Growing Challenge and Danger in Healthcare. Austin Community College Infectious Diseases Site [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.austincc.edu/microbio/2993j/mrsa.htm through http://www2.austincc.edu.

Reuters Health Information (2004). Antibiotics and Virulence Factors Foster Emergence of Community-Acquired MRSA. Medscape Today from J Infect Dis 2004;189:1565-1573 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/477474 through http://www.medscape.com.

Vandenesch, F., et. al. (2003). Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carrying Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes: Worldwide Emergence. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 9(8):978-984, 2003 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460126 through http://www.medscape.com.

Weber, S., et. al. (2003 November 18). Fluoroquinolones and the Risk for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hospitalized Patients. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 9(11), 2003 [On-line article ]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/463682 through http://www.medscape.com.

Schwaber, M., et. al. (2003 June 16). Clinical Implications of Varying Degrees of Vancomycin Susceptibility in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 9(6), 2003 [On-line article ]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/456295 through http://www.medscape.com.

Lee, M., et. al. (2004 March 25). Management and Outcome of Children With Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Medscape Today from Pediatr Infect Dis J 23(2):123-127, 2004 [On-line article ]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/471838 through http://www.medscape.com.

(2003 November 19). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Correctional Facilities - Georgia, California, and Texas, 2001-2003. Medscape Today from MMWR 52(41):992-996, 2003 [On-line article ]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/464224 through http://www.medscape.com.

Salgado, C. and Farr, B. (2003 May 22). Drug Resistance, MRSA and VRE: Preventing Patient-to-Patient Spread. Medscape Today from Infect Med 20(4):194-200, 2003 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/452426 through http://www.medscape.com.

Chambers, H. (2001). The Changing Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 7(2), 2001 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/414383 through http://www.medscape.com.

(2004 March 16). Effects of Antibiotic Nose Ointment for Hospitalized Patients with Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of Internal Medicine Volume 140 Issue 6, Page I-36 [On-line Summaries for Patients]. Available online at http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/140/6/I-36 through http://www.annals.org.

(2003 August). Community-Associated MRSA, Frequently Asked Questions. CDC, Issues in Healthcare Settings [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/ARESIST/mrsa_comm_faq.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(2003 March 7). MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Fact Sheet. CDC, Issues in Healthcare Settings [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/ARESIST/mrsafaq.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(2004 April, Updated). VISA/VRSA, Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Stapylococcus aureus. CDC, Issues in Healthcare Settings [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/Lab/FactSheet/vrsa.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Bowser, A. (2004 April 22). Community-Onset MRSA May Be Less Obvious Than in the Hospital. Medscape Today [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/474245 through http://www.medscape.com.

Quinonez, J. (2004 January 20). Pediatric Infectious Disease Issues: Smallpox, Combination Vaccines and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Medscape Today [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466494?src=sidesearch through http://www.medscape.com/.

(2003 October 20). Increasing MRSA in California jails. Infectious Diseases Society of America (by EurekAlert) [On-line Public release]. Available online at http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-10/idso-imi102003.php through http://www.eurekalert.org.

Mayo Clinic staff (2003 August 5). Toxic shock syndrome. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00221 through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

(2003 August 22). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Competitive Sports Participants --- Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000—2003. CDC, MMWR 52(33);793-795 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5233a4.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(2003 October 17). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Correctional Facilities --- Georgia, California, and Texas, 2001—2003. CDC, MMWR 52(41);992-996 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5241a4.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Shopsin, B. and Kreiswirth, B. (2001). Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Medscape Today from Emerg Infect Dis 7(2), 2001 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/414415 through http://www.medscape.com.

Estrada, B. (2004 March 2). MRSA in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis. Medscape Today from Infect Med 21(1):13, 2004 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/468210 through http://www.medscape.com.

Capriotti, T. (2004 January 1, posted). Preventing Nosocomial Spread of MRSA is in Your Hands. Medscape Today from Dermatol Nurs 15(6):535-538, 2003[On-line article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466141 through http://www.medscape.com.

(2003 February 7). Public Health Dispatch: Outbreaks of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections --- Los Angeles County, California, 2002—2003. CDC MMWR 52(05);88 [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5205a4.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Caused By Gram-Positive Cocci, Staphylococcal Infections. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 13. Infectious Diseases. Chapter 157. Bacterial Diseases, Topics, Caused By Gram-Positive Cocci [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section13/chapter157/157a.jsp through http://www.merck.com/.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Questions and Answers about Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Schools. (Online information). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/Features/MRSAinSchools/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed December 2007.

Columbus Public Health Department, Programs and Services. MRSA awareness. (Online information). Available online at http://www.publichealth.columbus.gov/programs/Environmental_Health/mrsa.asp through http://www.publichealth.columbus.gov. Accessed December 2007.

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