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Urinary Tract Infection

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Tests: Urinalysis, Urine Culture, Blood Culture, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Kidney Stone Analysis, Kidney Stone Risk PanelSusceptibility Testing
Conditions: Kidney Disease

Elsewhere On The Web
FamilyDoctor.org: Urinary Tract Infections
KidsHealth.org: Urinary Tract Infections
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
NIDDK: Your Urinary System and How it Works
UrologyHealth.org: Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2012 May 24). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, NIDDK. [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/utiadult/index.aspx through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed October 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2012 August 29).Urinary tract infection (UTI). Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2011 August 9). Pathophysiology of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2039975-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2012 February 1). Cystitis in Females. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/233101-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2012 February 23). Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2040239-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.

Tolan, R. (Updated 2011 May 12). Fever Without a Focus. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/970788-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.

Vega, C. (2012 September 27). Overtreating UTIs: Walk Softly and Carry a Dipstick, A Best Evidence Review. Medscape Today News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/771495 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2002). Urethritis. Hendrick Health System, AccessMed Health Information Library [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/001424.htm through http://www.ehendrick.org.

(2002 July). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 02-2097 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/index.htm through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

(2002 March). Your Urinary System and How it Works. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 02-3195 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yoururinary/index.htm through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

(2001 April). Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 01-4800 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/cystoscopy/index.htm through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

(2002 August 02). Urinary tract infection. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00286 through http://www.mayoclinic.com.

(2003 April). Vesicoureteral Reflux. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 03-4555 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/index.htm through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

(2003 August 05, Updated). Urinary Tract Infections. ACOG, Medical Library [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZ1LJ5770D&sub_cat=2008 through http://www.medem.com.

(2001). Urinary Tract Infections in Children. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/handouts/272.html through http://familydoctor.org.

(2000). Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/handouts/497.html through http://familydoctor.org.

Saberi, P. (2002 February 4, Updated). Urinary tract infection – chronic or recurrent. MEDLINEplus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000505.htm.

Kang, Y. (2002, May 25, Updated). Catheter-associated UTI. MEDLINEplus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000483.htm.

Parsons, C. (2002, July 30, Updated). Kidney infection (pyelonephritis). MEDLINEplus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000522.htm.

Angelo, S. (2002, October 31, Updated). Recurrent cystitis. MEDLINEplus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000515.htm.

Greene, A. (2002, March 3, Updated). Urinary tract infection (cystitis). MEDLINEplus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000521.htm.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 981-983.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1621-1622.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 842-855.

(Updated 2008 May 1). Urinary Tract Infection, Frequently Asked Questions. Womenshealth.gov [On-line information]. Available online at http://womenshealth.gov/faq/urinary-tract-infection.cfm through http://womenshealth.gov. Accessed April 2009.

(© 2008). Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. Annals of Internal Medicine, Summaries for Patients [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/149/1/I-37.pdf through http://www.annals.org. Accessed April 2009.

(Reviewed 2002 December). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. American Urological Association Foundation, UrologyHealth.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/search/index.cfm?topic=147&search=UTI&searchtype=and through http://www.urologyhealth.org. Accessed April 2009.

(Reviewed 2007 December). Urinary Tract Infections in Children. American Urological Association Foundation, UrologyHealth.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/pediatric/index.cfm?cat=07&topic=146 through http://www.urologyhealth.org. Accessed April 2009.

Rahn, D. (2008 November 12). Urinary Tract Infections: Contemporary Management. Medscape from Urol Nurs. 2008;28(5):333-341 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/583060 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2009.

Stokowski, L. (2009 February 3). Preventing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Nurses [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587464 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2009.

Cunha, B. et. al. (2008 June 12). Urinary Tract Infection, Females. Emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/233101-overview through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2009.

Cunha, B. (2008 June 25). Urinary Tract Infection, Males. Emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/231574-overview through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2009.

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