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Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Folate Deficiency

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On This Site
Tests: CBC, Blood smear, Vitamin B12, B Vitamins, Folate, Homocysteine, Methylmalonic acid, Intrinsic Factor Antibody, Parietal Cell Antibody
Conditions: Malnutrition, Alcoholism, Anemia, Malabsorption, Neuropathy

Elsewhere On The Web
March of Dimes: Folic Acid
MEDLINEplus Health Information: Pernicious anemia
Family Doctor: Vitamin B-12
NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Vitamin B12 
NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Folate 
NHLBI: Pernicious anemia

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review.

Sources Used for Current Review

(Reviewed 2011 April 4). Vitamin B12. MedlinePlus Drug Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/926.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2011.

(Reviewed 2011 June 24). Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements [On-line information]. Available online at http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-QuickFacts/ through http://ods.od.nih.gov. Accessed August 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 March 4). Vitamin Deficiency Anemia. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-deficiency-anemia/DS00325/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed July 2011.

(Revised 2011 April). Pernicious Anemia. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/prnanmia/prnanmia_what.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed August 2011.

Chen, Y. (Updated 2010 January 31). Anemia – B12 deficiency. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000574.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2011.

Schick, P. (Updated 2011 May 26). Megaloblastic Anemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204066-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed August 2011.

Frank, E. et. al. (Updated 2010 September). Megaloblastic Anemia. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/MegaloblasticAnemia.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed July 2011.

Conrad, M. (Updated 2011 May 26). Pernicious Anemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed August 2011.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2008 November 23). Pernicious anemia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2011.

OH, R. and Brown, D. (2003 March 1). Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1;67(5):979-986. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p979.html through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed August 2011.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 468-470, 1038-1039.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 1100-1103.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 601-604.

Sources Used for Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Cohen, E. (1003 June 05). Medical Encyclopedia: Anemia - B12 deficiency. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000574.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Webner, D. (2003 April 26). Medical Encyclopedia: Folate deficiency. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000354.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Cohen, E. (2003 April 25). Medical Encyclopedia: Folate-deficiency anemia. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000551.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Brose, M. (2003 June 1). Medical Encyclopedia: Folic acid - test. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003686.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Angelo, S. (2003 January 19). Medical Encyclopedia: Folic acid (folate). MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002408.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Cohen, E. (2002 November 7). Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Angelo, S. (2003 January 18). Medical Encyclopedia: Vitamin B12. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002403.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

(© 2004). Folate, RBC and Serum. ARUP’sGuide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a237.jsp#1149156 through http://www.aruplab.com

(© 2004). Intrinsic Factor Blocking Antibody. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a23b.jsp#1152989 through http://www.aruplab.com

(© 2004). Vitamin B12. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_270c.jsp#1150535 through http://www.aruplab.com

(© 2004). Vitamin B12 Binding Capacity. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_271c.jsp#1150556 through http://www.aruplab.com

Stevenson, R. (© 2004). Spina bifida. AccessMed Health Information Library, Hendrick Health System. Available online at http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/001258.htm through http://www.ehendrick.org

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Haggerty, M. (© 2004). Folic acid deficiency anemia. AccessMed Health Information Library, Hendrick Health System. Available online at http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/000541.htm through http://www.ehendrick.org

Patience Paradox, (© 2004). Folic acid. AccessMed Health Information Library, Hendrick Health System. Available online at http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/001540.htm through http://www.ehendrick.org

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(2002 December 9, Updated). Vitamin B12. NIH Clinical Center, Facts About Dietary Supplements. Available online at http://ods.od.nih.gov through http://ods.od.nih.gov

(2002 December 9, Updated). Folate. NIH Clinical Center, Facts About Dietary Supplements. Available online at http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/cc/folate.html through http://ods.od.nih.gov

Johnson, L. (©1995-2004). Vitamin B12. Merck Manual – Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home2/sec12/ch154/ch154j.htm through http://www.merck.com

Johnson, L. ((©1995-2004). Folic Acid. Merck Manual – Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home2/sec12/ch154/ch154k.htm through http://www.merck.com

(2003 October). Vitamin B-12. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/765.xml through http://www.familydoctor.org.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 460-461, 834-836, and 999-1000.

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Grund, S. (2007 August 27, Updated). Pernicious anemia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm throughhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html. Accessed on 4/12/08.

Matsui, W. (2007 February 14). Anemia - B12 deficiency. Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000574.htm throughhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html. Accessed on 4/12/08.

Kasper, D.L., et al, Editors (2005). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 16th Edition: McGraw-Hill. Pp 602-604, and 2404.

McClatchey, K.D., Editor (2002), Clinical Laboratory Medicine 2nd Edition: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. Pp 842-844.

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