Signs and Symptoms
- easy bruising
- oozing from nose or gums
- excessive bleeding from wounds, punctures, and injection or surgical sites
- heavy menstrual periods
- bleeding from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
- blood in the urine and/or stool
- an increased prothrombin time (PT/INR)
In hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, signs and symptoms may be similar to those listed above, but in more serious cases may also involve bleeding within the skull (intracranial).
A deficiency of vitamin K may be suspected when symptoms listed above appear in someone who is at an increased risk such as:
- those who have a chronic condition associated with malnutrition or malabsorption
- those who have been on long-term treatment with antibiotics; the antibiotics can kill the bacteria that aid in the production of vitamin K2 in the small intestine.
- seriously ill patients such as cancer or dialysis patients or those in intensive care units