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West Nile Virus

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On This Site
Tests: West Nile Virus Testing, Dengue Fever Testing, Arbovirus Testing, CSF Analysis
Conditions: Meningitis and Encephalitis
In the News: U.S. Experiencing Rise in West Nile Virus (2012)
Articles: Blood Banking

Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: West Nile Virus Basics
National Institutes of Health: West Nile Virus Information
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: West Nile Virus
MedlinePlus: West Nile Virus
KidsHealth.org: West Nile Virus
World Health Organization: West Nile Virus

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2013 June 14). West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/resources/pdfs/wnvGuidelines.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2014.

Cunha, B. (2013 December 17). West Nile Encephalitis. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/234009-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Lindsey, N. et. al. (2013). West Nile Virus and Other Arboviral Diseases United States, 2012. Medscape Multispecialty from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2013;62(25):513-517. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/807540 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Delgado, J. and Hillyard, D. (Updated 2013 November). Arboviruses. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Arboviruses.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2014.

Murray, K. et. al. (2013). West Nile Virus, Texas, USA, 2012. Medscape Multispecialty from Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(11):1836-1838. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/819868 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Salinas, J and Steiner, M. (Updated 2012 January 18). West Nile Virus. Medscape Multispecialty [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/312210-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Pittman, M. et. al. (2013 June 24). Recognition and Management of West Nile Virus in the ED. Medscape Multispecialty [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/804206 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

American Association of Blood Banks. "Risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection by Blood Transfusion." Press Release: September 5, 2002.

Brown, David. "Virus Test May be Ready by Summer ’03: West Nile Risk May Make Screening of Blood a Widespread Necessity." The Washington Post, September 25, 2002: A2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: West Nile Virus Basics. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

National Institutes of Health: West Nile Virus Information. Available online at http://www.nih.gov/news/westnile.htm through http://www.nih.gov.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Fact Sheet: Research on West Nile Virus. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/westnile.htm through http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

S Petersen LR, Roehrig JT, and Hughes JM. "Perspective: West Nile Virus Encephalitis." The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(16):1225-1226, October 17, 200. Abstract available online at http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/NEJMp020128v1?eaf through http://content.nejm.org.

Weiss, Rick. "Organ Recipients Had Virus: West Nile's Presence Also Raises Blood Supply Concerns." The Washington Post, September 4, 2002: A1, A6.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 1001-1002.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1626.

(2007 August 28). FDA Approves Second West Nile Screening Test for Donated Blood and Organs. FDA News [On-line press release]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01691.html through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2007 March 2). FDA Approves First Fully Automated Test to Screen for west Nile virus in Blood and Tissue Donors. FDA News [On-line press release]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01578.html through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2006 August 25). Recommendations for Protecting Laboratory, Field, and Clinical Workers from West Nile Virus Exposure. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/westnile/reclab.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2005 September 4). What You Need to Know about Mosquito Repellent. CDC West Nile Virus Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/mosquitorepellent.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2005 September 27). West Nile Virus Fact Sheet. CDC West Nile Virus Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2007 August 1, Reviewed). Testing and Treating West Nile Virus in Humans. CDC Questions and Answers [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/testing_treating.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2007 June 22). West Nile Virus Sequelae Can Be Long-Term. Medscape Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/558721 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/09/07.

Murray, K. et. al. (2007 April 05). Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus. Medscape from Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):479-481. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554199 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/09/07.

(2007 May 1). West Nile virus. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed on 9/09/07.

Salinas, J. and Steiner, M. (Updated November 6). West Nile Virus. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/312210-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

Cunha, B. (Updated 2010 October 18). West Nile Encephalitis. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/234009-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

Lindsey, N. et. al. (2010 September 13). West Nile Virus Activity — United States, 2009. Medscape Today from Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2010;59(25):769-772. © 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/725089 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010 June 26) West Nile virus. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed November 2010.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2010 September 15). West Nile virus. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007186.htm. Accessed November 2010.

Neitzel, D. et. al. (2009 August 11). False-Positive Results with a Commercially Available West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin M Assay --- United States, 2008. Medscape Today from Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58(17):458-460. © 2009 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/706830 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

Hillyard, D. et. al. (Updated 2010 January). Arboviruses. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Arboviruses.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed November 2010.

(December 28, 2010) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile Virus. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2010.

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