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The Test Sample
What is being tested?
Hemoglobin A1c, also called A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin with glucose attached. The A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months by measuring the percentage of glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside red blood cells (RBCs). There are several types of normal hemoglobin, but the predominant form – about 95-98% – is hemoglobin A. As glucose circulates in the blood, some of it spontaneously binds to hemoglobin A.
The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin is formed. Once the glucose binds to the hemoglobin, it remains there for the life of the red blood cell – normally about 120 days. The predominant form of glycated hemoglobin is referred to as A1c. A1c is produced on a daily basis and slowly cleared from the blood as older RBCs die and younger RBCs (with non-glycated hemoglobin) take their place.
This test may be used to screen for and diagnose diabetes or risk of developing diabetes. Standards of medical care in diabetes from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) state that diabetes may be diagnosed based on A1c criteria or plasma glucose criteria, either the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or the 2-hour plasma glucose value after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
This test is also used to monitor treatment for someone who has been diagnosed with diabetes. It helps to evaluate how well the person's glucose levels have been controlled by treatment over time. For monitoring purposes, an A1c of less than 7% indicates good glucose control and a lower risk of diabetic complications for the majority of diabetics.
However, the ADA and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommend that the management of glucose control in type 2 diabetes be more "patient-centered." Data from recent studies have shown that low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can cause complications and that people with risk of severe hypoglycemia, disease duration, underlying health conditions, established vascular complications, and a limited life expectancy do not necessarily benefit from having a stringent goal of less than 7% for their A1c. It is recommend that people work closely with their healthcare provider to select a goal that reflects each person's individual health status and that balances risks and benefits.
How is the sample collected for testing?
A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm or a drop of blood is taken from a finger by pricking it with a small, pointed lancet.
NOTE: If undergoing medical tests makes you or someone you care for anxious, embarrassed, or even difficult to manage, you might consider reading one or more of the following articles: Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety, Tips on Blood Testing, Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests, and Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests.
Another article, Follow That Sample, provides a glimpse at the collection and processing of a blood sample and throat culture.
Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?
No test preparation is needed.