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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Pagana, K. D., Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 9-10.
Kostousov, V. (Updated 2014 January 15). Activated Clotting Time. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2084818-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 8/29/15.
Achneck, H. et. al. (2010). Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, Pathophysiology of Bleeding and Clotting in the Cardiac Surgery Patient From Vascular Endothelium to Circulatory Assist Device Surface. Circulation. 2010; 122: 2068-2077 [On-line information]. Available online at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/20/2068.full through http://circ.ahajournals.org. Accessed on 8/29/15.
(2012 April 29 Updated). Activated Clotting Time [ACT]. Practical-Haemostasis.com. [On-line information]. Available online at http://practical-haemostasis.com/Miscellaneous/Miscellaneous%20Tests/act.html through http://practical-haemostasis.com. Accessed on 8/29/15.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 9-11.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pg 233.
Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 44-46.
Ganter, M. et. al. (2005). Monitoring Activated Clotting Time for Combined Heparin and Aprotinin Application: An In Vitro Evaluation of a New Aprotinin-Insensitive Test Using SONOCLOT. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:308-314. [On-line journal article]. Available online through http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org. Accessed on 8/18/07.
(2007 May 29). Activated Clotting Time. Massachusetts General Hospital Pathology Service [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.massgeneral.org/pathology. Accessed on 8/12/07.
Baird, C. et. al. (2007). Anticoagulation and Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Impact of Activated Clotting Time and Heparin Dose on Survival. Ann Thorac Surg 2007;83:912-920. [On-line journal article]. Available online through http://ats.ctsnetjournals.org. Accessed on 8/18/07.
Jabr K, Johnson JH, McDonald MH, Walsh DL, Martin WD, Johnson AC, Pickett JM, Shantha-Martin U. Plasma-modified ACT can be used to monitor bivalirudin (Angiomax) anticoagulation for on-pump cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2004; 36:174-7.
Tremey B, Szekely B, Schlumberger S, François D, Liu N, Sievert K, Fischler M. Anticoagulation monitoring during vascular surgery: accuracy of the Hemochron low range activated clotting time (ACT-LR). Br J Anaesth. 2006; 97:453-9.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
(2002 November 19, Updated). Activated Clotting Time. Mass. Gen Hospital, Pathology Service, Laboratory Medicine Coag Test Handbook Index [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.mgh.harvard.edu.
Carville, D. and Guyer, K. (2000 September). Hemostasis testing: Past, present, and future. Medical devicelink [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.devicelink.com.
(1998 Spring). Anticoagulation Services Newsletter. Detroit Medical Center Department of Pharmacy Services, v 3 (2) [On-line Newsletter]. PDF available for download at http://www.dmcpharmacy.org.
Chapter 2: Mediastinal Bleeding / Emergency Sternotomy, Manipulations on Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Stony Brook State Univ of NY, Dept of Surgery, Cardiac Surgical Residents Handbook.
Zwischenberger, J. and Bartlett, R. What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.med.umich.edu.
Menta, S. (1999 Spring). The Coagulation Cascade. Physiology Disorders Evaluation, College of Medicine, Univ of Florida.
Elstrom, R. (2001 November 25, Updated). PTT. MedlinePlus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003653.htm.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 10-12.
Pagnani, G. et. al. (Updated 2009 May 29). Massachusetts General Hospital Activated Clotting Time performed on the Medtronic ACT PlusTM. Massachusetts General Hospital. [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.massgeneral.org/pathology/assets/poct/MGH-Medtronic-ACT-Plus-procedure.pdf through http://www.massgeneral.org. Accessed July 2011.
Calkins et al. (2007 June) Catheter and Surgical Ablation of AF. Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Heart Rhythm, Vol 4, No 6 [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/documents/pdf/guidelines/HR_Afib_Ablation.pdf through http://www.sts.org. Accessed July 2011.
Marmur, J. et al. (2010 March 8). Avoiding Intelligence Failures in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory: Strategies for the Safe and Rational Use of Dalteparin or Enoxaparin during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Medscape Today from J Invasive Cardiol. 2009;21(12):653-64 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/715597 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed July 2011.
Ganter M, Hofer C. Coagulation Monitoring: Current Techniques and Clinical Use of Viscoelastic Point-of-Care Coagulation Devices. Anesthesia & Analgesia May 2008 vol. 106 no. 5, Pp 1366-1375. Available online at http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/5/1366.long through http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org. Accessed August 2011.