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AFB Testing

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Also known as: AFB Smear and Culture; TB Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT
Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Herchline, T. and Amorosa, J. (Updated 2014 June 9). Tuberculosis. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed August 2014.

(© 1995–2014). Acid-Fast Smear for Mycobacterium. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8213 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed August 2014.

Koirala, J. (Updated 2014 March 14). Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/222664-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2014.

Zieve, D. (Updated 2013 November 20). Acid-fast stain. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003766.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2014.

(Updated 2014 May). Mycobacterium tuberculosis – TB. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/TB.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed August 2014.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 December 6). Sputum stain for mycobacteria. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003724.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2014.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 983-984.

Availability of an Assay for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Rifampin-Resistant Strains, and Considerations for Its Use — United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report October 18, 2013 / 62(41);821-824. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6241a1.htm?s_cid=mm6241a1_e through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed Sept 2014.

Food and Drug Administrations News Release: FDA permits marketing of first U.S. test labeled for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis bacteria and resistance to the antibiotic rifampin. July 25, 2013. Available online http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm362602.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(February 11, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A New Tool to Diagnose Tuberculosis: The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/Xpert_MTB-RIF.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed September 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Heimerdinger, M. (2000). Tuberculosis. ACP-ASIM [On-line session report]. Available online at http://www.acponline.org/vas2000/sessions/tb.htm through http://www.acponline.org.

Kirchner, J. (2000 February 1). Do Sputum Smears Positive for AFB Signify Treatment Failure? American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000201/tips/25.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Jerant, A. et.al. (2000 May 1). Identification and Management of Tuberculosis. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000501/2667.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Sadovsky, R. (2001 May 15). Making the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010515/tips/9.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 August 13, Reviewed). Frequently Asked Questions, Questions and Answers about TB. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/qa.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Tuberculosis. The Merck Manual of Medical Information--Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/sec17/181.htm through http://www.merck.com.

Tan, L.J. (2000 June 28, Updated). ATS/CDC Statement Revises Treatment and Testing for Latent TB Infection. American Medical Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/article/1865-2125.html through http://www.ama-assn.org.

Mazurek, G. & Villarino, M. (2002 December 18 Updated). Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON®-TB Test for Diagnosing Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [On-line report]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/di51cha1.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 March 23, Reviewed). TB and HIV Coinfection. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/TB_HIVcoinfection/default.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

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(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis Skin Test. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbskinfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Pediatric Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/pedtbfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

NIAID (1999 December 1, Updated). The Global Burden of Tuberculosis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health [On-line publication]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/blueprint/page2.htm through http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

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Mycobacteriology, Introduction to the Genus Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/mbintro.htm through http://www2.provlab.ab.ca.

Mycobacteriology, Acid-Fast Staining Procedures for Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/afb_stain/afb_tutorial.htm

Hall, G. (2001). Practical Microbiology, Update on Broth Media for the Isolation of Mycobacterium Species. Medscape from Infect Med 18(1):28-30, 2001 [On-line journal]. Available FTP: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/410131 through http://www2.provlab.ab.ca.

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(1996 October 28, Rev L). AccuProbe, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification Test. Gen-Probe [Package Insert]. Available online at http://www.gen-probe.com/mtd.html through http://www.gen-probe.com.

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(2006 April). Tuberculosis: General Information. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250010.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed December 10, 2006.

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(2006 April). Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250102.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed December 10, 2006.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 955-957.

Moore, DAJ et al. Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for the Diagnosis of TB. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;355:1539-1550.

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