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Aldosterone and Renin

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Also known as: Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity; PRA
Formal name: Aldosterone, Serum; Aldosterone, Urine; Renin

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

2016 review performed by Ron Haas, PhD DABCC.

(March 2, 2016) Funder, JW, et.al. The Management of Primary Aldosteronism: Case Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May;101(5):1889-916. Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-4061#sthash.CQcfIQFp.dpuf. Accessed October 2016.

(August 8, 2016) Frassetto, LA. Bartter Syndrome: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology. Available online at emedicine.medscape.com/article/238670. Accessed October 2016.

(July 20, 2016) Griffing GT. Addison Disease Workup. Available online at emedicine.medscape.com/article /116467. Accessed October 2016.

(January 2, 2014) Mayo Clinic. Primary aldosteronism. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/primary-aldosteronism/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20030194. Accessed October 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice, 5th ed. Suddarth DS, ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; 1991: 547-548.

Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations. Bishop M, Duben-Engelkirk J, Fody E, eds. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis, and Correlations. Kaplan L, Pesce A, eds. 2nd ed. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company; 1989.

Laurence M. Demers, PhD. Distinguished Professor of Pathology and Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, The M. S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. P.63.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Adrenal venography, Pp 12-14, Aldosterone Pp 35-38, Renin Pp 742-743.

Jain, T. (2004 February 2). Aldosterone. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/print/ency/article/003704.htm.

(© 2005). Aldosterone, Serum and Urine. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_al36.jsp.

Jain, T. (2004 February 2). Hyperaldosteronism – primary and secondary. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/print/ency/article/000330.htm.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 32-32, 815-819.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 74-79, 946-951.

Holt, E. (Updated 2008 March 18). Aldosterone. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003704.htm. Accessed July 2009.

Mushnick, R. (Updated 2007 October 22). Renin. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003698.htm. Accessed July 2009.

(2008 September). The Hormone Foundation's Patient Guide to Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism. The Hormone Foundation [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.hormone.org/Resources/Patient_Guides/upload/detection-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-primary-aldosteronism-122208.pdf. Accessed July 2009.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 January 6). Primary aldosteronism. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/primary-aldosteronism/DS00563/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed July 2009.

Jabbour, S. (Updated 2009 May 21). Conn Syndrome. Emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117280-overview. Accessed July 2009.

(Updated 2009 May). Aldosteronism. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/EndocrineDz/Aldosteronism.html. Accessed July 2009.

(Reviewed July 26, 2012.) Pubmed Health. Aldosterone. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004167/. Accessed on Jan. 4, 2013.

(Revised February 2012.) National Adrenal Diseases Foundation. Hypoaldosteronism - The Facts You Need to Know. Available online at http://www.nadf.us/diseases/hyperaldosteronism.htm. Accessed on Jan. 4, 2012.

The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. Primary hyperaldosteronism. Available online at http://endocrinediseases.org/adrenal/hyperaldosteronism.shtml. Accessed on Jan. 4, 2013.

(Updated by Nancy J. Rennert, July 26, 2011.) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Hypoaldersteronism-primary and secondary. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000330.htm. Accessed on Jan. 4, 2013.

(Reviewed Jan. 2011.) Urology Care Foundation. Primary Hyperaldosteronism. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=13. Accessed Jan. 4, 2013.

(Reviewed August 2012 by Ashley B. Grossman.) Secondary Aldosteronism. The Merck Manual. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed Jan. 8, 2013.

(May 2010.) Stowasser, et al. Laboratory Investigation of Primary Aldosteronism. Clinical Biochem. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874431/. Accessed Jan. 28, 2012.

(Updated August 2012.) Primary Aldosteronism Workup. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127080-workup#aw2aab6b5b9. Accessed Jan. 28, 2012.

Bartter syndrome. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000308.htm. Accessed February 2014.

Bartter syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/bartter-syndrome. Accessed February 2014.

Bartter's Syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders. Available online at http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/589/viewAbstract. Accessed February 2014.

Bartter Syndrome Treatment & Management. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238670-treatment. Accessed February 2014. 

Bartter Syndrome. Prognosis. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238670-overview#aw2aab6b2b5aa. Accessed February 2014.

Bartter syndrome: Overview. Office of Rare Diseases Research. Available online at http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/gard/5893/resources/resources/1. Accessed February 2014.