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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
(2007) Golub, E. and Boesze-Battaglia, K. Current Opinions in Orthopaedics. Available online at http://josorge.com/publications/Citations/Bio-bio/004.pdf. Accessed July 13, 2016.
(Sept 2015) Mayo Clinic. Liver Function Tests. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/liver-function-tests/basics/why-its-done/prc-20012602. Accessed July 13, 2016.
(Apr 2015) MedlinePlus. ALP Blood Test. Available online at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm. Accessed July 13, 2016.
(Mar 2015) Medscape. Biliary Obstruction Workup. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/187001-workup. Accessed July 13, 2016.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pp 608-609, 624.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, Pp 49-51.
Carey, W (January 1, 2009) Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests, Cleveland Clinic. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hepatology/guide-to-common-liver-tests/. Accessed October 2009.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson RA and Pincus MR, eds. Philadelphia: 2007, Pp 86, 256.
(2000) Dufour, DR et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Standards of Laboratory Practice: Laboratory Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/NACB/LMPG/hepatic/hepatic_combined.pdf#page=3. Accessed October 2009.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. Kasper D, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, eds. McGraw-Hill, 2005, Pp 1815, 2280-2281.
ALP Isoenzyme Test. (Update May 5, 2013.) National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed Health. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0003968. Accessed September 2013.
Alkaline Phosphatase, Total and Isoenzymes, Serum. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/89503. Accessed September 2013.
ALP – Blood Test. (Updated May 30, 2011). MedlinePlus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003470.htm. Accessed September 2013.
Xiushui, M. R. et. al. (Updated March 2, 2012.) Cardiac Cirrhosis and Congestive Hepatopathy. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151792. Accessed September 2013.