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Alpha-1 Antitrypsin

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Also known as: Alpha1-antitrypsin; A1AT; AAT
Formal name: Alpha1 Antitrypsin; α1-antitrypsin

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

(February 2003) American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Individuals with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. PDF available for download at http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/respiratory-disease-adults/alpha1.pdf. Accessed February 2017.

(Updated 2012 January 4). Learning about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD). National Human Genome Research Institute. Available online at https://www.genome.gov/19518992/learning-about-alpha1-antitrypsin-deficiency-aatd/. Accessed February 2017.

(Reviewed 2013 January). Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Genetics Home Reference. Available online at https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency. Accessed February 2017.

Hadjiliadis, D. (Updated 2014 August 30). Alpha-1 antitrypsin test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003715.htm. Accessed February 2017.

Sandhaus, R. A. and Turino, G., et al. (2016 February 4). Clinical practice guidelines: The diagnosis and management of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency in the adult. COPD Foundation. Available online at http://journal.copdfoundation.org/jcopdf/id/1115/The-Diagnosis-and-Management-of-Alpha-1-Antitrypsin-Deficiency-in-the-Adult. Accessed February 2017.

Stoller, J. K. (2016 July). Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: An underrecognized, treatable cause of COPD. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. Available online at http://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/109842/hepatology/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-underrecognized-treatable-cause-copd. Accessed February 2017.

(Updated 2016 August). Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency – AAT. ARUP Consult. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/AAT.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed February 2017.

Anariba, D.E.I. (Updated 2017 February 10). Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/295686-overview. Accessed February 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Barclay, L. and Lie, D. (2003 October 10). New Guidelines for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. Medscape Medical News [On-line News and CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462776.

Huskey, R., Maintained (1998 November 10, Updated). Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. From Principles of Medical Genetics by Gelehrter and Collins, 1990 (Williams & Wilkins). Available online at http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/antitryp.html.

Maxton, D. (2000 August 21). Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Netdoctor.co.uk [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/alpha1def.htm.

Shaffer, E. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. The Merck Manual – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home2/sec10/ch136/ch136f.htm.

Alpha-1 Related Emphysema. American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/luna1ad.html.

University of Utah (2003). Alpha-1-antitrypsin. Genetic Testing of Newborn Infants, Genetic Science Learning Center [On-line information]. Available online at http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/newborn/infosheets/alpha.cfm.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. Children’s Liver Disease Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.childliverdisease.org/aatd.html.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (A-1ATD). MedicineNet.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medicinenet.com/Alpha_1_Antitrypsin_Deficiency/article.htm.

Alpha-1-Antitrypsin and Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Phenotype. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_al38.jsp#1141235.

Kaufman, D. (2003 May 7). Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. MedlinePlus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000120.htm.

Martell, B. (2003 May 12). Alpha-1 antitrypsin. MedlinePlus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003715.htm.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 45-46.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 198-199.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 138-143.

Fairman P, and Malhotra R. (2008 October 29, Updated). Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC108.HTM. Accessed March 2009.

Ohar, J. (2008 January 15). New Data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease CME/CE. Medscape from CHEST 2007: Pulmonary Disease [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/568542. Accessed March 2009.

(2007 November). What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/aat/aat_whatis.html. Accessed March 2009.

(2007 September 28, Updated). Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/alphaone/. Accessed March 2009.

(Updated 2012 September 17). Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/295686-overview. Accessed May 2013.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2013 March 22). Alpha-1 antitrypsin test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003715.htm. Accessed May 2013.

Grenache, D. et. al. (Updated 2013 March). Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency – AAT. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/AAT.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed May 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 40-41.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 234-235.

(February 2003) American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Individuals with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. PDF available for download at http://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/respiratory-disease-adults/alpha1.pdf. Accessed May 2013.

(2006) American Thoracic Society. Patient Information series: What is alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency? PDF available for download at http://patients.thoracic.org/information-series/en/resources/what-is-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency.pdf. Accessed May 2013.

(February 2011) American Lung Association. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Factsheet: Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency-related (AAT) emphysema. Available online at http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/resources/facts-figures/COPD-Fact-Sheet.html. Accessed May 2013.

(January 2013) Genetics Home Reference. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency. Accessed May 2013.