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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (GPT), Serum. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/hematology/catalog/Overview/8362 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed September 2013.
Orlewicz, M. S. (Update April 20, 2012.) Alanine Aminotransferase. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2087247 through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2013.
Nyblom, H. et. al. (July 2004.) High AST/ALT Ratio May Indicated Advanced Alcoholic Liver Disease Rather Than Heavy Drinking. National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15208167 through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. Accessed September 2013.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 604-606.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 1811-1815.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, Pp 40-42.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC, Pp 270-271.
Carey, W (January 1, 2009) Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests, Cleveland Clinic. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hepatology/guide-to-common-liver-tests/ through http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com. Accessed February 2010.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson RA and Pincus MR, eds. Philadelphia: 2007, Pp 268-269.
(2000) Dufour, DR et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Standards of Laboratory Practice: Laboratory Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury http://www.aacc.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/NACB/LMPG/hepatic/hepatic_combined.pdf#page=3 through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed February 2010.
(March 15, 2005) Giboney, P. Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminases in the Asymptomatic Patient. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71:1105–10. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1105.html through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed February 2010.
(Feb 22, 2009) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: ALT. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003473.htm. Accessed February 2010.