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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Reviewed January 2016 by Boris Calderon, MD, DABCC, FACB, NIH.
Tamby MC, Chanseaud Y, Guillevin L, Mouthon L. New insights into the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2003;2(3):152-7. PubMed PMID: 12848956.
Gabrielli A, Avvedimento EV, Krieg T. Scleroderma. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;360(19):1989-2003. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra0806188. PubMed PMID: 19420368.
White, B. Systemic sclerosis. In Clinical Immunology Principles and Practice. Second edition. Edited by R Rich, T Fleisher, W Shearer, et al. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book, 2001, Chapter 64, pp 64.1-64.10.
(January 25, 2016). Varga, J. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in adults. In: UpToDate., Axford, JS (Ed). UpToDate, Waltham, MA. Available online at http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-systemic-sclerosis-scleroderma-in-adults. Accessed on January 25, 2016.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Yoon, J. and Raugi, G. (2012 January 13). CREST Syndrome. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1064663-overview. Accessed February 2012.
(© 1995-2012). Test ID: CENTA Centromere Antibodies, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/110006. Accessed February 2012.
Hill, H. and Tebo, A. (Updated 2011 May). Scleroderma - Systemic Sclerosis. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/SystemicSclerosis.html. Accessed February 2012.
(Updated 2010 May). Handout on Health: Scleroderma. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Scleroderma/default.asp. Accessed February 2012.
(©2012). Scleroderma, How is it Diagnosed? Arthritis Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arthritis.org/disease-center.php?disease_id=26&df=diagnosed. Accessed February 2012.
Granito, A. (2012 January 31). Antinuclear Antibodies as Ancillary Markers in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Medscape News Today from Expert Rev Mol Diagn 12(1):65-74. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/755110. Accessed February 2012.
Bellando-Randone, S. et. al. (2010 December 9). Patient Subgroups and Potential Risk Factors in Systemic Sclerosis: Is There a Possibility of an Early Diagnosis? Medscape Today from Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol 5(5):555-564. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/731883. Accessed February 2012.
Assassi, S. et. al. (2009 October). Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC), PBC Autoantibodies, and Hepatic Parameter Abnormalities in a Large Population of Systemic Sclerosis Patients. J Rheumatol. v36(10): 2250–2256. [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC2885441/pdf/nihms201893.pdf. Accessed February 2012.
Magrey, M. and Abelson, A. (© 2000-2011). Laboratory Evaluation of Rheumatic Diseases. Cleveland Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/rheumatology/laboratory-evaluation-rheumatic-diseases/. Accessed February 2012.
Makover, M. (Updated 2011 February 14). Scleroderma. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000429.htm. Accessed February 2012.
Hajj-ali, R. (Updated 2008 February). Systemic Sclerosis. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed February 2012.
Li, S. (Updated 2012 January 30). Pediatric Raynaud Phenomenon. Medscape Reference from [On-line information]. Available online http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1355650-overview. Accessed February 2012.
Harris, M. and Rosen, A. (2003 November 18). Autoimmunity on Scleroderma: The Origin, Pathogenic Role, and Clinical Significance of Autoantibodies. Medscape Today from Curr Opin Rheumatol 15(6). [On-line information]. Available online http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/463925. Accessed February 2012.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 73.