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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
2016 review performed by Beth A. O'Donnell, MLS (ASCP) CM and the Editorial Review Board.
(Updated Feb. 8, 2015) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. AST. Available online at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003472.htm. Accessed 8/15/2016.
(Updated Jul. 15, 2014.) Mayo Clinic. Liver disease. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver-problems/basics/definition/con-20025300. Accessed 8/15/2016.
(January 2015) Karim, S. et. al. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT) and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin. Delta Medical College Journal. Available online at http://imsear.hellis.org/handle/123456789/172619. Accessed 8/15/2016.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pp 604-606.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 1811-1815.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, Pp 126-129.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC Pp 270-271.
Carey, W (January 1, 2009) Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests, Cleveland Clinic. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hepatology/guide-to-common-liver-tests/. Accessed February 2010.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson RA and Pincus MR, eds. Philadelphia: 2007, Pp 268-269.
(2000) Dufour, DR et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Standards of Laboratory Practice: Laboratory Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/NACB/LMPG/hepatic/hepatic_combined.pdf#page=3. Accessed February 2010.
(March 15, 2005) Giboney, P. Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminases in the Asymptomatic Patient. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71:1105–10. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1105.html. Accessed February 2010.
(Feb 23 2009) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: AST. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003472.htm. Accessed February 2010.
Nyblom, H. et. al. (July 2004.) High AST/ALT Ratio May Indicated Advanced Alcoholic Liver Disease Rather Than Heavy Drinking. National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15208167. Accessed September 2013.
AST. (Updated Jan. 21, 2013.) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003472.htm. Accessed September 2013.