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Blood Smear

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Also known as: Peripheral Smear; Blood Film; Manual Differential; Differential Slide; Red Blood Cell Morphology; Erythrocyte Morphology; Leukocyte Differential
Formal name: Peripheral Blood Smear

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Gersten, T. (Updated 2012 February 8). Blood smear. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003665.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed July 2014.

Schick, P. (Updated 2013 February 21). Hemolytic Anemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/201066-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2014.

Curry, C. (Updated 2012 August 1). Differential Blood Count. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2085133-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2014.

Lichtin, A. (Updated 2013 September). Evaluation of Anemia. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed July 2014.

Gauer, R. and Braun, M. (2012 May 15). Thrombocytopenia. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Mar 15;85(6):612-622. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p612.html through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed July 2014.

(© 1995–2014). Morphology Evaluation (Special Smear). Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/print/9184 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed July 2014.

(2012 May 18). What is Anemia? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/anemia/ through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed July 2014.

Lynch, E. (© 1990) Chapter 155 Peripheral Blood Smear. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. NCBI Bookshelf [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK263/ through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed July 2014.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 168-170.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Elstrom, R. (2001 October 28, Reviewed). Peripheral smear. University of Pennsylvania Health System, pennhealth.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/003665.htm through http://www.pennhealth.com.

Biology of Blood. The Merck Manual Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual_home/sec14/152.jsp through http://www.merck.com.

Peripheral smear. Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.rwjuhh.net/Atoz/encyclopedia/article/003665.asp through http://www.rwjuhh.net.

Cutler, C. (2003 September 14). Blood smear. MEDLINEplus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003665.htm

Brose, M, Updated (2003 May 08, Updated). MEDLINEplus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003657.htm

Blackwell, S. and Hendrix, P. (2001). Common Anemias: What Lies Beneath. Clinician Reviews 11(3):53-62 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/436692 through http://www.medscape.com.

(2001 October 15 ). Anemia in Children. American Family Physician, 64:1379-86 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20011015/1379.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 174-176.

Levin, M. (2007 March 9). Blood Differential. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003657.htm. Accessed on 4/10/07.

Dowshen, S. (2007 March). Blood. Nemours Foundation, Teens Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/body_basics/blood.html through http://kidshealth.org. Accessed on 4/10/07.

Vajpayee N, Graham SS, Bem S. Basic examination of blood and bone marrow. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 21st ed. Richard McPherson and Matthew Pincus, eds. Saunders Elsievier: Philadelphia. Pp 457-483, 2007.

Bell A, Sallah S. The Morphology of Human Blood Cells, 7th ed. 2005. Abbott, Pp 1-27.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Pp 468-478, 505-516, 539-541,549-559.

(August 4, 2005) Bain B. Diagnosis from Blood Smear, Review article. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:498-507. Available online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra043442 through http://www.nejm.org. Accessed February 2011.

(September 9, 2009) Harper J. Pediatric Megaloblastic Anemia. eMedicine article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/959918-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2011.

(September 9, 2009) Artz A. Anemia in Elderly Persons. eMedicine article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1339998-overview throughhttp://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2011.

(February 29, 2010) Dugdale D. Blood Smear. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003665.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003665.htm. Accessed February 2011.

Riley R, et.al. How to Prepare and Interpret Peripheral Blood Smear. Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University. Available online at http://www.pathology.vcu.edu/education/PathLab/pages/hematopath/pbs.html through http://www.pathology.vcu.edu. Accessed February 2011.