NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.
Sources Used in Current Review
Reviewer May 2015: Thomas Kampfrath, PhD, DABCC.
Lüers C, Schmidt A, Wachter R, Fritzsche F, Sutcliffe A, Kleta S, Zapf A, Hagenah G, Binder L, Maisch B, Pieske B. Serial NT-proBNP measurements for risk stratification of patients with decompensated heart failure. Herz. 2010 Oct;35(7):488-95.
William Clarke. Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, 2nd Edition Paperback – February 4, 2011. ISBN-13: 978-1594251023.
Michael L. Bishop, Edward P. Fody, Larry E. Schoeff. Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Techniques, and Correlations, 2013. 7th edition.
Kaplan & Pesce. Clinical Chemistry, 5th Edition. Theory, Analysis, Correlation. 2009.
(March 27, 2014) National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute. Who is at Risk of Heart Failure? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/atrisk through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed May 2015.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Interview with Alan H.B. Wu, PhD. Director, Clinical Chemistry, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT.
"First Blood Test for Congestive Heart Failure Wins FDA Clearance." Clinical Laboratory Strategies, December 2000, Vol. 5, No. 12, Pg.1.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Tang, W. (2004 February 27). NACB: Recommendations for the use of Cardiac Biomarkers in Heart Failure. NACB: Recommendations for the use of Cardiac Biomarkers in Heart Failure – Chapter 2 [Draft Guidelines]. Available online at http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/biomark/card_biomarkers_chp2.doc through http://www.nacb.org.
Bay, M. et. al. (2003). NT-proBNP: a new diagnostic screening tool to differentiate between patients with normal and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Heart ONLINE Heart 2003;89:150-154 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://heart.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/2/150 through http://heart.bmjjournals.com.
Diagnostic Products Corporation Acquires Nonexclusive Rights to a Key Cardiac Marker, NT-proBNP, from Roche Diagnostics—Agreement widens access to unique marker for heart failure and allows for better/earlier/improved therapy. (2004 February 11) DPC [On-line press release]. Available online at http://www.dpcweb.com/newsreleases/2004/february/ntprobnp.htm through http://www.dpcweb.com.
Roche Receives FDA Clearance for Elecsys proBNP Assay – First Automated Blood Test to Aid in the Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (2002). Roche Diagnostics [On-line press release]. Available online at http://www.roche-diagnostics.com/press_lounge/press_releases/archive/2002_11_20.html through http://www.roche-diagnostics.com.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pp. 1630-1631.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC; Pg. 264.
deFilippi C. Natriuretic Peptides for Diagnosing Heart Failure and Beyond: What We Know in 2007. (May 24, 2007) Medscape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/557030 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed September 2008.
Maher KO et al. B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of critical heart disease in children. Pediatrics 2008 Jun; 121:e1484. Available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/121/6/e1484?linkType=FULL&journalCode=pediatrics&resid=121/6/e1484 through http://pediatrics.aappublications.org. Accessed September 2008.
(Updated 2010 January 1). What is Heart Failure? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/ through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed November 2011.
Lehman, C. et. al. (Revised 2011 March). Heart Failure. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HeartFailure.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed November 2011.
(© 1995-2011). Test ID: BNP83873 B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Plasma. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/83873 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2011.
(© 1995-2011). Test ID: PBNP84291 NT-Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/84291 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2011.
Malcolm, J. and Arnold, O. (Revised 2010 January) Heart Failure (HF) (Congestive Heart Failure). Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular_disorders/heart_failure/heart_failure_hf.html?qt=BNP&alt=sh through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed November 2011.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 690-692.