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Blood Urea Nitrogen

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Also known as: BUN; Urea Nitrogen; Urea
Formal name: Blood Urea Nitrogen

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Lerma, E. (2014 March 6, Updated). Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2073979-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 07/18/15.

Salazar, J. (2014). Overview of Urea and Creatinine. Medscape Multispecialty from Lab Med. 2014;45(1):e19-e20. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/823420 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed 07/18/15.

Dugdale, D. (2013 April 29). BUN - blood test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 07/18/15.

Delgado, J. and Straseski, J. (2015 May). Renal Function Markers - Kidney Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/RenalFunctionMarkers.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed 07/18/15.

(© 1995–2015). Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81793 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed 07/18/15.

Pagana, K. D., Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 946-948.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2002 March). Medical Tests of Kidney Function. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, NIH Publication No. 02–4623 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/kidneytests/index.htm through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

Esson, M. and Schrier, R. (2002). Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Tubular Necrosis. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:744-752 [On-line journal]. PDF available for download at http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/137/9/744.pdf through http://www.annals.org.

Agha, Irfan (2003 August 7, Updated). BUN. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htm.

Agrawal, M. and Swartz, R. (2000 April 1). Acute Renal Failure. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2077.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Physician’s Reference Laboratory: Kidney Function Panel. Available online at http://www.prlnet.com/Kidney.htm through http://www.prlnet.com.

August 2007) National Kidney and Urological Disease Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Your Kidneys and How They Work. Available online at http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/index.htm#rate through http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed November 2008.

(Update May 15, 2007) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. BUN. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htm. Accessed November 2008.

American Urological Association. UrologyHealth.org, Kidney (renal) Failure. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/adult/index.cfm?cat=02&topic=120#top through http://www.urologyhealth.org. Accessed November 2008.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp. 312-313.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006 Pp. 525-527.

Lerma, E. (Updated 2012 October 30). Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2073979-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2012.

Dugdale, D. (2011 May 30). BUN - blood test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htm. Accessed November 2012.

(© 1995-2012). Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/81793 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2012.

(Updated 2012 March 23). The Kidneys and How They Work. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/ through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed November 2012.

McMillan, J. (Modified 2010 January). Chronic Kidney Disease. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed November 2012.

Arora, P. (Updated 2012 March 28). Chronic Kidney Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238798-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 993-995.