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Cardiolipin Antibodies

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Also known as: Anticardiolipin Antibodies; aCL Antibody
Formal name: Cardiolipin Antibodies (IgG, IgM, and IgA)

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(© 1995-2012). Test ID: MCLIP81900. Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgM, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/81900 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed May 2012.

Rodgers, III, G. et. al. (Updated 2012 January). Antiphospholipid Syndrome – APS. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/APS.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2012.

(© 2012). Antiphospholipid Antibodies. Lupus Foundation of America [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lupus.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/new_learnaffects.aspx?articleid=2302&zoneid=526 through http://www.lupus.org. Accessed May 2012.

Moake, J. (Revised 2009 June) Thrombotic Disorders. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed May 2012.

Berg, T. (Updated 2012 July 9). Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Pregnancy. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/261691-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 71-72.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Pg 774.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pages 69-70.

(2001 June 26). Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. Hematology Resource Page, Patient Resources University of Illinois - Urbana/Champaign, Carle Cancer Center. Available online at http://www-admin.med.uiuc.edu/hematology/PtAPS.htm through http://www-admin.med.uiuc.edu.

(© 2004). Antiphospholipid Testing. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_al67.jsp#3965115 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

Petri, M. (2001). Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Anticardiolipin Antibodies and the Lupus Anticoagulant in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The Lupus Foundation of America. Available online at http://www.lupus.org/education/brochures/antiphos02.html through http://www.lupus.org.

(© 2004). Cardiolipin Antibodies, IgG and IgM. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a133.jsp#1059158 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

The Thrombophilias and Pregnancy. March of Dimes, Professionals and Researchers, Quick References and Fact Sheets. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/681_9264.asp through http://www.marchofdimes.com.

(2003 September, Modified) Anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgA). Clinical Coagulation Laboratory Coagulation Test Descriptions. Available online at http://pathology.mc.duke.edu/coag/TestDes.htm through http://pathology.mc.duke.edu.

Carsons, S. et. al. (2004 August 18, Updated). Antiphospholipid Syndrome. EMedicine. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2923.htm through http://www.emedicine.com.

Arnout J.IS TH Scientic Standardisation Subcommittee Lupus Anticoagulants/Phospholipid dependent antibodies. International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Boston. July 2002.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 70-71.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 134-135.

(2006 October 15, Revised). Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. APS Foundation of America. Available online at http://www.apsfa.org/aps.htm through http://www.apsfa.org. Accessed on 4/20/08.

(2008 February 5, Reviewed). Learning About Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). National Human Genome Research Institute. Available online at http://www.genome.gov/17516396 through http://www.genome.gov. Accessed on 4/20/08.