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CD4 Count

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Also known as: T4 Count; T-helper Cells
Formal name: CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4 Percent

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2015 April 8, Updated). Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available online at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/AdultandAdolescentGL.pdf through http://aidsinfo.nih.gov. Accessed May 17, 2015.

(2014 September 23, Revised). CD4 Count. AIDS.gov [On-line information]. Available online at https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/understand-your-test-results/cd4-count/ through https://www.aids.gov. Accessed May 17, 2015.

Bennett, N. (2014 December 17, Updated). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 17, 2015

Bennett, N. and Gilroy, S. (2015 January 23, Updated). HIV Disease. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 17, 2015.

Ford, N. et. al. (2015 February). The future role of CD4 cell count for monitoring antiretroviral therapy. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15: 241–47. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(14)70896-5.pdf through http://www.thelancet.com. Accessed May 17, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection — United States, 2014. Recommendations and Reports, April 11, 2014 / 63(RR03);1-10. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6303a1.htm?s_cid=rr6303a1_e through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Janice K. Pinson MT, MBA. Molecular Business Strategies, Birmingham, MI.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 535-538.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 487-490.

Bennett, N. and Rose, F. (2008 October 22, Updated). HIV Disease. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC24.HTM through http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed on 10/26/08.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2008 August 9). MayoClinic HIV/AIDS. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2005 November, Revised). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Introduction. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch192/ch192a.html?qt=HIV&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2008 September, Reviewed). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Viruses/HIV.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2006 September 22). Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings. CDC MMWR 55(RR14);1-17 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5514a1.htm through http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. Accessed on 11/1/08.

(2008 September 26). CD4 Monitoring of HIV Patients a Cost-Saving Strategy in Poor Countries. Medscape from Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581174 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 10/26/08.

Moing, V. et. al. (2007 May 22). From HIV Medicine Long-term Evolution of CD4 Count in Patients With a Plasma HIV RNA Persistently <500 copies/mL During Treatment With Antiretroviral Drugs. Medscape from HIV Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556494 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 11/1/08.

Moore, D.M. et. al. (2006 September 13). CD4 Percentage is an Independent Predictor of Survival in Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy with Absolute CD4 Cell Counts Between 200 and 350 Cells/UL. Medscape from HIV Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543496 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 11/1/08.

Baker, J. et. al. (2008 July 18). CD4+ Count and Risk of Non-AIDS Diseases Following Initial Treatment for HIV Infection. Medscape from AIDS 2008;22(7): 841-848. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/575829 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 11/1/08.

Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007. Pp 317, 600-604, 820 and 1923.

(Updated November 13, 2008) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Understanding How HIV Causes AIDS. Available online at http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/HIVAIDS/Understanding/howhiv.htm through http://www3.niaid.nih.gov. Accessed February 2008.

LabCorp CD4:CD8 Ratio Profile. Available online through https://www.labcorp.com. Accessed February 2009.

ARUP Consult. Leukemia and Lymphoma Phenotyping. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/OncologicDz/Lymphomas/LeukemiaLymphomaPhenotyping.html# through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed March 2009.

(August 9, 2007) MayoClinic.com. DiGeorge Syndrome. Available onlien at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/digeorge-syndrome/DS00998 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2009.

Anand, J. (Updated 2011 August 11). Antiretroviral Therapy in Treatment-Naive Patients. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2041458-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

Hughes, R. et. al. (2011 November 21). Long-term Trends in CD4 Cell Counts and Impact of Viral Failure in Individuals Starting Antiretroviral Therapy. Medscape Today from HIV Medicine v12 (10):583-593 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/753337 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N.J. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2011 November 9) HIV Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N. (Updated 2011 July 14). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 June 9). AIDS. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000594.htm. Accessed February 2012.

(© 1995–2012). Test ID: TCD4 CD4 Count for Immune Monitoring, Blood. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/84348 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed February 2012.

Hillyard, D. et. al. (Updated 2011 November). Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIV.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed February 2012.

(Revised 2011 March 10). CD4 (T-cell) Tests. AIDS InfoNet [On-line information]. Available online at http://aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/124 through http://aidsinfonet.org. Accessed February 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 244-247.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 609-612.