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Chloride

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Also known as:  Cl
Formal name: Chloride

The Test Sample

What is being tested?

Chloride is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate, to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance. Chloride is present in all body fluids but is found in the highest concentration in the blood and in the fluid outside of the body’s cells. Most of the time, chloride concentrations mirror those of sodium, increasing and decreasing for the same reasons and in direct relationship to sodium. When there is an acid-base imbalance, however, blood chloride levels can change independently of sodium levels as chloride acts as a buffer. It helps to maintain electrical neutrality at the cellular level by moving into or out of the cells as needed.

Chloride is taken into the body through food and table salt, which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and the excess is excreted in urine. The normal blood level remains steady, with a slight drop after meals (because the stomach produces acid after eating, using chloride from blood).

How is the sample collected for testing?

A blood sample is taken by needle from a vein in the arm. Chloride can also be measured in a random or 24-hour urine sample.

NOTE: If undergoing medical tests makes you or someone you care for anxious, embarrassed, or even difficult to manage, you might consider reading one or more of the following articles: Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety, Tips on Blood Testing, Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests, and Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests.

Another article, Follow That Sample, provides a glimpse at the collection and processing of a blood sample and throat culture.

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?

No test preparation is needed.