NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Available online at http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium-Sodium-Chloride-and-Sulfate.aspx through http://www.iom.edu. Accessed September 2011.
Pagana and Pagana. Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. Fourth Edition. Pp 164-166 and 963-964.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
(1995-2004). Minerals and Electrolytes. The Merck Manual of Medical Information – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec12/ch155/ch155a.html?qt=electrolytes&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com.
Ben-Joseph, E., Reviewed (2004 July). Dehydration. Familydoctor.org Information for Parents [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=familydoctor&lic=44&article_set=21646 through http://www.kidshealth.org.
A.D.A.M. editorial, Updated (2003 October 15). Electrolytes. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm.
Hurd, R. (Updated April 26, 2007). MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Serum Chloride. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003485.htm. Accessed July 2008.
Mushnick, R. (Updated October 22, 2007.) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Chloride—urine. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003601.htm. Accessed July 2008.
Clarke, W and Dufour D R, Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 321-322, 326.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006. Pp 165-167.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Chloride in diet. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002417.htm. Accessed July 2009.