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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Stone N.J. et al. (2013 November 12). 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. Circulation 10.1161/01.cir.0000437738.63853.7. Available online at https://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/11/11/01.cir.0000437738.63853.7a. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Martin, S. et al, (2014 June 24). 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline: what was done well and what could be done better. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 24;63(24):2674-8. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681146. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Hendrani, A. et al. (2016 February 26). Dyslipidemia management in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Current guidelines and strategies. World J Cardiol. 2016 Feb 26;8(2):201-10. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v8.i2.201. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981215. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Chen, M. (2015 April 20 Updated). High blood cholesterol levels. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000403.htm. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Genzen, J. (2016 April Updated). Cardiovascular Disease (Traditional Risk Markers) - Risk Markers - CVD (Traditional). ARUP Consult. Available online at https://arupconsult.com/content/cardiovascular-disease-traditional-risk-markers. Accessed on 5/01/16.
(2016 March 28 Updated). About Cholesterol. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About-Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp#.Vy9WX3q9b5M. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Hughes, S. (2015 November 13 Updated). Focus More on % LDL Reductions: New JUPITER Data. Medscape Multispecialty from American Heart Association (AHA) 2015 Scientific Sessions. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/854491. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Morris PB, Ballantyne CM, Birtcher KK, Daly Jr DD, DePalma SM, Minissian MB, Orringer CE, Smith SC. 2016 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on the role of non-statin therapies for LDL-cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016. Available as pdf at http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleID=2510936#tab1.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Bethesda, Md. 2001 May. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3_rpt.htm
American Heart Association. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested. (Updated April 4, 2008) Available online at http://americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=541. Accessed July 2008.
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). May 2001. PDF available for download at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3full.pdf. Accessed July 2008.
American Academy of Family Physicians. Cholesterol: What Your Level Means. (Updated October 2007). Available online at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/heartdisease/risk/029.html. Accessed July 2008.
Daniels, SR, Greer FR, and the Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood (clinical report). Jul 2008. Pediatrics 122:198-208.
American Academy of Pediatrics. AAP issues new guidelines on cholesterol screening (press release). 7 Jul 2008. Available online at http://www.aap.org/new/july08lipidscreening.htm. Accessed August 2008.
American Academy of Pediatrics Lipid Screening and Cardiovascular Health in Childhood. Pediatrics Vol. 122 No. 1 July 2008, pp. 198-208. Available online at http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;122/1/198. Accessed September 2008.
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Sep 2002. PDF available for download at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3full.pdf. Accessed July 21, 2013.
(©2012) American Heart Association. Cholesterol Levels. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/Cholesterol_UCM_001089_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed July 21, 2013.
(November 2012) American Association of Family Physicians. High Cholesterol. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/high-cholesterol.html. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Kavey R-EW, et al. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: Summary report. Pediatrics 2011; 128: DOI:10.1542/peds.2009-2107C. PDF available for download at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/site/misc/2009-2107.pdf. Accessed July 19, 2013.
KidsHealth.org. Cholesterol and Your Child. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/cholesterol.html#. Accessed July 20, 2013.
Kathiresan, S. 2006. Increased Small Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, A Prominent Feature of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. PDF available for download at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/113/1/20.full.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2013.
Blake G, et al. September 23, 2002. Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Concentration and Size as Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease in Women. Circulation. Available online at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/106/15/1930.full. Accessed July 20, 2013.
Blakenstein R, et al. July 2011. Predictors of Coronary Heart Disease Events Among Asymptomatic Persons With Low Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Volume 58, Issue 4, Pp 364–374.
Krauss R. 2010 Aug;21. Lipoprotein subfractions and cardiovascular disease risk. Curr Opin Lipidol (4):305-11. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20531184. Accessed July 2013.
Prado K, et al. 2011 Sep-Oct. Low-density lipoprotein particle number predicts coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic adults at intermediate risk of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Lipidol (5):408-13. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981843. Accessed July 2013.
Lavie C, et.al. May 2012. To B or Not to B: Is Non–High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol an Adequate Surrogate for Apolipoprotein B? Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 May; 85(5): 446–450. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2861974/. Accessed July 2013.