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Copper

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Also known as: Cu; Urine Copper; Blood Copper; Free Copper; Hepatic Copper
Formal name: Copper, 24-hour urine, total and free blood, and liver (hepatic) tissue

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Sloan, J. and Feyssa, E. (2014 March 4). Copper. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2087780-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed December 2014.

Johnson, L. (Revised 2013 April). Copper Deficiency and Toxicity. Merck Manual Professional Edition [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed December 2014.

Haldeman-Englert, C. (2013 January 4). 24-hour urine copper test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003604.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed December 2014.

(© 1995–2014). Copper, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8612 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed December 2014.

Strathmann, F. (Updated 2014 March). Trace Minerals. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/TraceMinerals.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed December 2014.

Gilroy, R. (Updated 2014 May 2). Wilson Disease. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183456-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed December 2014.

(Last updated: 3/8/2011) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). Menkes Disease. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/menkes-syndrome through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed January 2015.

(Reviewed March 2009) Genetics Home Reference. Menkes Syndrome. Available online at http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/gard/1521/menkes-disease/resources/1 through http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Accessed January 2015.

(Reviewed January 2014) Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center, Copper. Available online at http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/copper/#deficiency through http://lpi.oregonstate.edu. Accessed January 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC. Bankson, D. Chapter 35, Vitamins and Trace Elements: Assessment of Micronutrient Status through Laboratory Testing. Pp. 399 410.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp. 292-295.

Alexander, D. (2006 March 2, Updated). 24-hour urine Copper/Cu. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003604.htm. Accessed 7/21/07.

McGee, W. (2007 March 2, Updated). Copper in diet. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002419.htm. Accessed 7/25/07.

Perez, E. (2006 October 23, Updated). Copper poisoning. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002496.htm. Accessed 7/25/07.

(2004). Copper. ATSDR Division of Toxicology ToxFAQs [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts132.html through http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov. Accessed 7/25/07.

(2007 February 13, Updated). Menkes Disease Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/menkes/menkes.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed 7/25/07.

(2007 February 14). Zellweger Syndrome Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/zellweger/zellweger.htm through http://www.ninds.nih.gov. Accessed 7/25/07.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp. 441.

Copper. Merck Manual of Medical Information Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec12/ch155/ch155c.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed 7/17/07.

Das, S. and Ray, K. (2006 October 13). Wilsons Disease: An Update. Medscape from Nature Clinical Practice Neurology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543866 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed 7/27/07.

Turnlund, J. (2007 July, Reviewed). Copper. Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health, Micronutrient Information Center, Oregon State University [On-line information]. Available online at http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/copper/ through http://lpi.oregonstate.edu. Accessed 9/16/07.

(2006 August 1). Copper. MedlinePlus Health Information, Herbs and Supplements [On-line information]. Previously available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-copper.html. Accessed 9/16/07.

Barnes, N. et. al. (2005). The copper-transporting ATPases, menkes and wilson disease proteins, have distinct roles in adult and developing cerebellum. Medscape from J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(10): 9640-5 (ISSN: 0021-9258) [On-line abstract]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15634671?src=emed_ckb_ref_0 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed 9/16/07.

Shim, H. and Harris, Z. L. (2003 May). Supplement: 11th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals, Genetic Defects in Copper Metabolism. J. Nutr. 133: 1527S-1531S [On-line journal article]. Available online at http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/133/5/1527S through http://jn.nutrition.org. Accessed 9/16/07.

Greco, F. (Updated 2009 January 20). 24-hour urine copper test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003604.htm. Accessed December 2010.

McMillin, G. and Roberts, W. (Updated 2010 May). Wilson Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/WilsonDz.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed November 2010.

Haldeman-Englert, C. (Updated 2010 September 10). Wilson's disease. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000785.htm. Accessed November 2010.

Johnson, L. (Revised 2008 August). Copper. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec01/ch005/ch005c.html?qt=wilson disease&alt=sh#sec01-ch005-ch005c-534 through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed November 2010.

McMillin, G. et. al. (2009 August 25). Direct Measurement of Free Copper in Serum or Plasma Ultrafiltrate. Medscape Today from American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2009;131(2):160-165. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/707416 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

Kaler, S. (Updated 2009 May 28). Menkes Kinky Hair Disease. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/946985-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2010.

(© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8612: Copper, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8612 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2010.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 292-295.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 556-559, 1126-1130, 1378-1379.