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Cystatin C

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Formal name: Cystatin C

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Lerma, E. (Updated 2012 May 17). Novel Biomarkers of Renal Function. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1925619-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2013.

Sinert, R. and Peacock, P. (Updated 2013 June 20). Acute Renal Failure Complications. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/777845-overview#a1 through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed July 2013.

Malone, B. (2012 August 23). Refining the Role of Cystatin C in Estimating GFR New Combined Cystatin C –Creatinine Equation More Accurate. Clinical Laboratory Strategies [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/publications/strategies/archives/2012/Documents/082312CLS.pdf through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed July 2013.

(© 1995–2013). Cystatin C with Estimated GFR, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratory Interpretive Handbook [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/?alpha=C&unit_code=35038 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed July 2013.

Paxton, A. (2012 September). Cystatin C and creatinine—using both found to be best. CAP Today [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.cap.org. Accessed July 2013.

Shah, A. (Revised 2013 May). Evaluation of the Renal Patient. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed July 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 326-333.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 363-366.

McPherson, R. and Pincus, M. (© 2011). Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods 22nd Edition: Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. Pp 177.

Zhou H, Hewitt SM, Yuen PS, Star RA. Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers - Needs, Present Status, and Future Promise. Nephrol Self Assess Program. Mar 2006;5(2):63-71. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603572/ through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed August 2013.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearninghouse. Kidney Disease Research Updates, Winter 2013. NIH-funded Study Finds More Precise Way to Estimate Kidney Function. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/About/ResearchUpdates/KidneyWin13/5.aspx through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed October 2013.

National Kidney Foundation. Cystatin C: What is its role in estimating GFR? Available online at http://www.kidney.org/professionals/tools/pdf/CystatinC.pdf through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed October 2013.

National Kidney Disease Education Program. Estimating GFR. Available online at http://nkdep.nih.gov/lab-evaluation/gfr/estimating.shtml through http://nkdep.nih.gov. Accessed October 2013.

National Kidney Disease Education Program. Update on Cystatin C: Cystatin C Standardization (Update as of July 2010). Available online at http://nkdep.nih.gov/lab-evaluation/cystatin-c.shtml through http://nkdep.nih.gov. Accessed October 2013.

UCSF (Karin Rush-Monroe on September 04, 2013). Kidney Function Can Be Assessed by Measuring Cystatin C in Blood. Available online at http://www.ucsf.edu/news/2013/09/108666/relationship-kidney-function-estimates-risk-improves-measuring-cystatin-c-blood through http://www.ucsf.edu. Accessed October 2013.

Shlipak MG et al. Cystatin C versus Creatinine in Determining Risk Based on Kidney Function. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:932-943, September 5, 2013. Available online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1214234 through http://www.nejm.org. Accessed October 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Jeffrey, S. (2006 August 16). Cystatin C May Identify Pre-CKD in Elderly With Normal eGFR. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543019 through http://www.medscape.com.

Jeffrey, S. (2005 September 6). Cystatin C is a sensitive marker of prognosis acute heart failure. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/538789 through http://www.medscape.com.

Shlipak, M. (2005 May 19). Cystatin C and the Risk of Death and Cardiovascular Events among Elderly Persons. NEJM v 352(20) 2049-2060 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/352/20/2049 through http://content.nejm.org.

Sarnak, M. (2005 April 5). Cystatin C Concentration as a Risk Factor for Heart Failure in Older Adults. Annals of Internal Medicine v142(7) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/142/7/497?ct through http://www.annals.org.

Villa, P. et. al. (2005 April). Serum cystatin C concentration as a marker of acute renal dysfunction in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2005; 9(2): R139-R143 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1175926 through http://www.pubmedcentral.gov.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 328-329.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 312.

Lowry, F. (2009 February 27). Cystatin C, High Levels of Serum Cystatin C and Chronic Kidney Disease Linked to Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588857 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

Ma, Y-C. et. al. (2008 January 28). Improved GFR Estimation by Combined Creatinine and Cystatin C Measurements. Medscape Today from Kidney International [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/568609 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

Craig, R. G. and Hunder, J. M. (2008 October 27). Recent Developments in the Perioperative Management of Adult Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Medscape Today from British Journal of Anaesthesia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581312 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

(2009 January 27). New Equation Accurately Estimates GFR in Children With Kidney Disease. Medscape Today from Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587379 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2009.

(Updated 2009 August). Renal Function Markers - Kidney Disease. ARUP Consult. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/RenalFunctionMarkers.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed October 2009.

(April 7, 2009) National Kidney Disease Education Program, Laboratory Professionals: Update on Cystatin C. Available online at http://nkdep.nih.gov/labprofessionals/update-cystatin-c.htm through http://nkdep.nih.gov. Accessed January 2010.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Pp 153-154.