Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services.

Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP)

Print this article
Share this page:
Also known as: PIVKA II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists II)
Formal name: Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin

Board approvedAll content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by the Editorial Review Board.

Article Sources

« Return to Related Pages

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

2017 review performed by Siaw Li Chan, PhD.

(March 20, 2017) U.S. Food and Drug Administration product classification. Available online at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfPCD/classification.cfm?ID=2940. Accessed on 04/26/17.

(Nov 16, 2016). Schwartz, J and Carithers, R. Clinical features and diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. UpToDate. Available online at http://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma?source=search_result&search=Des-gamma-carboxy+prothrombin&selectedTitle=1~11. Accessed on 4/26/17.

Bertino G, Ardiri AM, Calvagno GS, Bertino N, Boemi PM. 2010. Prognostic and diagnostic value of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin in liver cancer. Drug News Perspect. Oct;23(8):498-508.

Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. (2011). Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics (5th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.

(March 31, 2016) American Cancer Society. Liver Cancer. Available online at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/about/what-is-key-statistics.html. Accessed May 2017.

Heimbach, J., Kulik, L. M., Finn, R., Sirlin, C. B., Abecassis, M., Roberts, L. R., Zhu, A., Murad, M. H. and Marrero, J. (2017). Aasld guidelines for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/hep.29086. Available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.29086/full. Accessed May 2017.

(November 2016) Guideline Recommendations for HCC Surveillance. ARUP Consult. Available online at https://arupconsult.com/content/hepatocellular-carcinoma. Accessed May 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(Revised 2009 May 05). Liver Cancer. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI_2_3x.asp?dt=25 . Accessed September 2009.

Grenache, D. et. al. (Updated 2009 May). Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HepatocellularCarcinoma.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed September 2009.

Singal, A. and Marrero, J. (2008 March). Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastroenterology & Hepatology Volume 4, Issue 3 [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.clinicaladvances.com/article_pdfs/gh-article-200803-marrero.pdf. Accessed September 2009.

Axelrod, D. and Leeuwen, D. (2008 September 18). Hepatocellular Carcinoma. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/197319-overview. Accessed September 2009.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 July 2). Liver Cancer. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/liver-cancer/DS00399. Accessed September 2009.

(Modified 2009 June 30). Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/hepatocellular/healthprofessional. Accessed September 2009.

Lopez, J. (2005 August). Recent Developments in the First Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005 August; 26(3): 65–79 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16450014. Accessed September 2009.

Stitham, S. et. al. (Updated 2008 September 4). Hepatocellular Carcinoma. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000280.htm. Accessed September 2009.

Yamamoto, K. et. al. (2009 August 11). Significance of Alpha-Fetoprotein and Des-gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Hepatectomy. Ann Surg Oncol Abstract [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19669841?dopt=Abstract. Accessed September 2009.

Sherman, M. (2005 June 23). Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Screening. Medscape Today from Seminars in Liver Disease [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/506830. Accessed September 2009.

Stuart, K. and Stadler, Z. (Updated 2012 November 26). Primary Hepatic Carcinoma. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/282814-overview. Accessed July 2013.

Bruix, J. and Morris Sherman, M. (2011). Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update. Hepatology v 53 (3) 3, 2011 [On-line information]. Available online through https://www.aasld.org. Accessed July 2013.

Grenache, D. (Updated 2013 March). Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HepatocellularCarcinoma.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed July 2013.

(© 1995–2013) Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/61844. Accessed July 2013.

Herrine, S. (Revised 2012 November). Primary Liver Cancer. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed July 2013.

Lok, A. et. al. (2010 February). Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin and Alpha fetoprotein as Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastroenterology v138 (2): 493 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819612/. Accessed July 2013.

Nguyen-Khoa, D-T. (Updated 2012 February 23) Vitamin K Deficiency. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/126354-overview. Accessed July 2013.