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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
2016 review by Nicholas Heger, PhD, CC (NRCC), Assistant Director - Clinical Chemistry, Tufts Medical Center Boston.
Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128(16):e240-e327.
Baselt, Randall C. (©2014). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 10th edition: Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, CA. Pp 656-659.
Bilbault P1, Oubaassine R, Rahmani H, Lavaux T, Castelain V, Sauder P, Schneider F. Emergency step-by-step specific immunotherapy in severe digoxin poisoning: an observational cohort study. Eur J Emerg Med. 2009 Jun;16(3):145-9.
Brent, Jeffrey; Wallace, Kevin; Burkhart, Keith; Phillips, Scott and Donovan, J. Ward. (© 2005). Critical Care Toxicology – Diagnosis and Management of the Critically Poisoned Patient, 1st edition. Mosby, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Pp. 1325-1333.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
A Manual of Laboratory & Diagnostic Tests. 6th ed. Fischbach F, ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, and Correlations. Bishop M, Duben-Engelkirk J, Fody E, eds. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
Sacher RA, McPherson RA, Campos J. Widmann's Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests. 11th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2000.
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics. 11th Edition. Lazo J, Goodman L S, Parker K L, eds, McGraw-Hill, September 2005.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (September 2003). Heart and Vascular Diseases: Heart Failure: Summary page (On line information). Available onlin at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hf/HF_All.html.
Terra, S G, Washam J B, Dunham, G D, and Gattis W A, (Oct 1999). Therapeutic Range of Digoxin's Efficacy in Heart Failure: What Is the Evidence? Pharmacotherapy, 19(10): 1123-1126, (On line journal). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/418044.
Gibbs C R, Davies M K Davies, Lip G Y H, (Feb 2000). Management: Digoxin and other inotropes, Beta-blockers, and antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic treatment, BMJ. 320(7233): 495-498. PDF available for download at http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1127534.
Mihai Gheorghiade, MD; Kirkwood F. Adams, Jr, MD; Wilson S. Colucci, MD (2004). Digoxin in the Management of Cardiovascular Disorders, Circulation; 109:2959-2964 (On line journal). Available online through http://circ.ahajournals.org.
Rich, M. (2003 September). Drug Therapy of Heart Failure in the Elderly. Am J Geriatr Cardiol 12(4):235-242 (On line journal). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460844.
Yusuf, S (November 1997). Digoxin in heart failure: results of the recent digoxin investigation group trial in the context of other treatments for heart failure Eur Heart J, 18: 1685-1688. PDF available for download through http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org.
The Digitalis Investigation Group, (February 1997). The Effect Of Digoxin on Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with Heart Failure, NEJM volume 336:525-533 (On line journal). Available online at http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/336/8/525.
Catherine A. Hammett-Stabler, PhD, DABCC, FACB. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UNC-Chapel Hill.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 361-364.
Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1334-1335.
(Revised 2010 January). What is Heart Failure? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hf/HF_WhatIs.html. Accessed February 2010.
A.D.A.M. Editorial Team (Updated 2009 February 3). Cardiac glycoside overdose. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002581.htm. Accessed February 2010.
Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 January 23). Digitalis toxicity. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000165.htm. Accessed February 2010.
Ahmed, A. (2008 May 21). An Update on the Role of Digoxin in Older Adults with Chronic Heart Failure. Medscape Today from Geriatrics & Aging 2008;11(1):37-41 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/573855. Accessed February 2010.
Patel, V. and James, P. (Updated 2010 January 6). Digitalis Toxicity. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/154336-overview. Accessed February 2010.
Digitalis toxicity. Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000165.htm. Last updated January 13, 2013. Accessed July 26, 2013.
Digoxin Drug Level. Health Encyclopedia. University of Rochester Medical Center. Available online at http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=167&ContentID=digoxin_drug_level. Accessed July 26, 2013.
Moffett BS, Valdes SO, Kim JJ. Possible digoxin toxicity associated with concomitant ciprofloxacin therapy. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013 Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868369. Published online July 19, 2013. Accessed July 27, 2013.
Raja Rao MP, Panduranga P, Sulaiman K, and Al-Jufail. Digoxin Toxicity with Normal Digoxin and Serum Potassium Levels: Beware of Magnesium, the Hidden Malefactor. J Emerg Med. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685098. Published May 16, 2013. Accessed July 27, 2013.
For Consumers: Avoiding Drug Interactions. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM096386. Last updated November 28, 2008. Accessed July 26, 2013.
Digoxin Oral Interactions. WebMD. Available online at http://www.webmd.com/drugs/drug-4358-Digoxin+Oral.aspx?drugid=4358&drugname=Digoxin+Oral. Last updated March 2013. Accessed July 31, 2013.