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Drugs of Abuse Testing

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Also known as: Drug Screen; Drug Test; Substance Abuse Testing; Toxicology Screen; Tox Screen; Sports Doping Tests
Formal name: Drugs of Abuse Screen

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

World Anti-Doping Program. World Anti-Doping Agency. Available online at http://www.wada-ama.org/en/World-Anti-Doping-Program/ through http://www.wada-ama.org. Copyright 2013. Accessed September 2013.

(Updated April 2013) K2/Spice (Synthetic Marijuana). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available online at http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/k2spice-synthetic-marijuana through http://www.drugabuse.gov. Accessed September 2013.

(Updated April 2013) Salvia. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available online at http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/salvia through http://www.drugabuse.gov. Accessed September 2013.

(March 2011) Commonly Abused Drugs Chart. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available online at http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/commonly-abused-drugs/commonly-abused-drugs-chart through http://www.drugabuse.gov. Accessed September 2013.

(July 3, 2103) Cohagan A. Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2013.

(©1995-2013) Drugs: What Parents Need to Know. KidsHealth from Nemours. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/talk/drugs_information.html through http://kidshealth.org. Accessed September 2013.

(January 2011) Substance Abuse: Overview. FamilyDoctor.org. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/substance-abuse.html through http://familydoctor.org. Accessed September 2013.

(©2001-2013) United States Anti-doping Agency. Testing Program. Available online at http://www.usada.org/testing through http://www.usada.org. Accessed September 2013.

Substances Banned in Particular Sports. World Anti-Doping Agency. Available online at http://list.wada-ama.org/prohibited-in-particular-sports/prohibited-substances/ through http://list.wada-ama.org. Issued January 2013. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Methamphetamine. Drugs.com. Available online at http://www.drugs.com/methamphetamine.html through http://www.drugs.com. Last updated January 6, 2010. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Methadone. Drugs.com. Available online at http://www.drugs.com/methadone.html through http://www.drugs.com. Last updated January 27, 2012. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Hydromorphone. Urban Dictionary. Available online at http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=hydromorphone through http://www.urbandictionary.com. Accessed September 17, 2013.

How Hash Oil Is Blowing Up Across the U.S. — Literally. Wired. Available online at http://www.wired.com/underwire/2013/02/hash-oil-explosion/ through http://www.wired.com. Published Feb 2013. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Salvia Divinorum and Salvinorin A. Drug Enforcement Administration. Available online at http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/salvia_d.pdf through http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Issued July 2013. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Andy Dolich. Sports drug testing policies: NFL, NBA, NHL, Olympics. CSNBayArea.com. Available online at http://www.csnbayarea.com/blog/biz-ball/sports-drug-testing-policies-nfl-nba-nhl-olympics through http://www.csnbayarea.com. Published January 9, 2013. Accessed September 18, 2013.

Anabolic Steroids. Drug Enforcement Administration. Available online at http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/anabolic.pdf through http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Issued August 13, 2013. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Beta Blockers Overdose. University of Maryland Medical Center. Available online at http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/beta-blockers-overdose through http://umm.edu. Last updated May 21, 2013. Accessed September 17, 2013.

(©2013) List of Brand Name(s) for Generic Drug Erythropoietin. Med India. Available online at http://www.medindia.net/drug-price/erythropoietin.htm through http://www.medindia.net. Accessed September 17, 2013.

HCG. Drugs.com. Available online at http://www.drugs.com/hcg.html through http://www.drugs.com. Accessed September 17, 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2001 March). Drug Abuse: How to Break the Habit. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/x2782.xml?printxml through http://familydoctor.org.

(2000 May 1). An Approach to Drug Abuse, Intoxication and Withdrawal. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000501/2763.html through http://www.aafp.org.

NIDA Infofax (2001 November 29). Inhalants. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) [On-line serial]. Available online at http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/Inhalants.html through http://www.nida.nih.gov.

Office of the National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) (1998 June) Rohypnol, NCJ-161843. The National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (SAMHSA) [On-line Fact Sheet]. Available online at http://www.health.org/nongovpubs/ondcp-rohypnol/ through http://www.health.org.

Segura, J. (1999 December 21). Sports Drug Testing, Medical and Regulatory aspects. University of Barcelona Olympic Studies Center [Online-index of articles]. Available online at http://www.blues.uab.es/olympic.studies/doping/segura.htm through http://www.blues.uab.es.

Bureau of Forensic Services (2001). Drug Summaries. Office of the Attorney General State of California Dept of Justice [On-line website information]. Available online at http://caag.state.ca.us/bfs/toxlab/summ.htm through http://caag.state.ca.us.

Bureau of Forensic Services (2001). An Introduction To Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Office of the Attorney General State of California Dept of Justice [On-line website information]. Available online at http://caag.state.ca.us/bfs/toxlab/gcms.htm through http://caag.state.ca.us.

Dean, M. (2001 October 25). Why Britain is going Dutch. The Guardian [On-line serial]. Available E-mail: malcolm.dean@guardian.co.uk. Available online at http://www.guardian.co.uk/analysis/story/0,3604,580358,00.html through http://www.guardian.co.uk.

Harrie, D. (2004 January 28). To treat or lock up: Senate backs new drug-offense policy. The Salt Lake Tribune [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.sltrib.com/2004/Jan/01282004/utah/133259.asp?display=print through http://www.sltrib.com.

Downie, A. (2002 January 4). Brazil's drug users will get help, instead of jail. Sweeping new laws are based on the view that drug users need treatment, not criminal punishment. The Christian Science Monitor [On-line serial]. Available online at http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0104/p7s2-woam.htm through http://www.csmonitor.com.

Reuters (2002 January 2). Florida Reports More Deaths from Oxycontin Abuse. Yahoo News Health Headlines [On-line News Release].

(2003 May 30). Race to develop drug abuse test. BBC News [On-line article]. Available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2946344.stm through http://news.bbc.co.uk.

(2004 February 1). Online drug abuse rife. NEWS.com.au [On-line article]. Available online at http://news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,8554330%255E1702,00.html through http://news.com.au.

Locke, J. (2000 July). Alternative Matrices in Drug Testing. Clinical Laboratory Strategies. Available from Jalane: jtechwriter@yahoo.com.

Locke, J. (2000 July). Olympic and Sports Drug Testing. Clinical Laboratory Strategies. Interview with Larry Bowers, Ph.D., Professor and Director of Athletic Drug Testing and Toxicology Laboratory at Indiana University. Available from Jalane: jtechwriter@yahoo.com.

Locke, J. (2002 February). Drug Testing. Clinical Laboratory Strategies. Available from Jalane: jtechwriter@yahoo.com.

Locke, J. (2002 February). Drug Testing – Sidebar on Olympic Drug testing. Clinical Laboratory Strategies. Interview with Don H. Catlin, MD Director of the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory and Lab Director of the Olympic drug lab for the SLC 2002 Olympics. Available from Jalane: jtechwriter@yahoo.com.

Valentine, J. & Kerrigan, S. (2001). Club or Rave Drugs. Manuscript. Available E-mail: valentinejimmiel@uams.edu.

Larry A. Broussard, PhD. Clinical Laboratory Sciences, LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA.

Donald F. LeGatt PhD, FCACB. Clinical Professor, Clinical Biochemist, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 892-894.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 472-474.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1237-1517.

(Updated, 2009 April 14). Substance Abuse Problems. U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus Health Topics [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/substanceabuseproblems.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed April 2009.

O'Connor, P. (Revised 2008 July). Drug Use and Dependence. The Merck Manual of Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec15/ch198/ch198a.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed April 2009.

(2008 January 1). The World Anti-Doping Code, 2008 Prohibited List, International Standard. WADA [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.wada-ama.org/rtecontent/document/2008_List_Format_en.pdf through http://www.wada-ama.org. Accessed April 2009.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 1317-1351.