NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
ARUP Lab Tests. Electrolyte Panel. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/ug/tests/0020410.jsp through http://www.aruplab.com. Accessed September 2011.
Mayo Medical Laboratories. 87972 Overview: Electrolyte Panel, Serum. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/print.php?unit_code=87972 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed September 2011.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Carlson, R. and Abbas, A. (2001). Use Of Anion Gap In Acid-Base Defects In The Acutely Ill. Medical Online Review and Database, Snow Tiger Medical Systems [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.snowtigermed.com/cgi-local/viewarticle.pl?doc=991203131636 through http://www.snowtigermed.com.
Martin, L. (1999 February). 2. Anion and bicarbonate gaps for diagnosing mixed acid-base disorders. All You Really Need to Know to Interpret Arterial Blood Gases [On-line, Ch 2 of book published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins]. Available online at http://www.mtsinai.org/pulmonary/noninvasive/gaps.htm through http://www.mtsinai.org.
Fall, P. (2000 March). A stepwise approach to acid-base disorders, Practical patient evaluation for metabolic acidosis and other conditions. Postgraduate Medicine online, 107 (3) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.postgradmed.com/issues/2000/03_00/fall.htm through http://www.postgradmed.com.
Brandis, K. (2002 August 14) 3.2 The Anion Gap. Acid-Base Physiology [On-line textbook]. Available online at http://www.qldanaesthesia.com/AcidBaseBook/AB3_2.htm through http://www.qldanaesthesia.com.
Brandis, K. (2002 August 14) 3.4 The Urinary Anion Gap. Acid-Base Physiology [On-line textbook]. Available online at http://www.qldanaesthesia.com/AcidBaseBook/AB3_4.htm through http://www.qldanaesthesia.com.
Harrison, J. (1997 January 5, Modified). Metabolic (including renal) Acid-Base Imbalance. Tulane Medical Pathology Course [On-line information, “classware”]. Available online at http://www.mcl.tulane.edu/classware/pathology/medical_pathology/acid-base-elect/12Metab_problems.html through http://www.mcl.tulane.edu.
(2003) Anion Gap. Michigan State Univ, Dept of Physiology [On-line information for class 442]. Available online: at http://www.psl.msu.edu/class/442/anion_gap.htm through http://www.psl.msu.edu.
(1995-2004). Chapter 59. Disorders of Acid-Base Metabolism. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mm_geriatrics/sec8/ch59.jsp through http://www.merck.com.
(1995-2004). Acid-Base Metabolism. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 2. Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders, Chapter 12. Water, Electrolyte, Mineral, And Acid-Base Metabolism [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section2/chapter12/12g.jsp through http://www.merck.com.
Hornick, D., Editor (2003, Revised). An Approach to the Analysis of Arterial Blood Gases and Acid-Base Disorders. Virtual Hospital, University of Iowa Health Care [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/internalmedicine/bloodgases/ through http://www.vh.org.
Priestley, M. and Lieh-Lai, M. (2004 March 8, Updated). Excerpt from Acidosis, Metabolic. EMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/ped/byname/acidosis-metabolic.htm through http://www.emedicine.com.
Jones, J. and Bosker, G. (2002 December 16) Diagnostic Aids in Emergency Medicine. The Emergency Medicine Reports Textbook of Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine [Excerpt from On-line Clinical Textbook]. Available online at http://www.thrombosis-consult.com/articles/Textbook/146_diagnosticaids.htm and http://www.thrombosis-consult.com/ClinicalTextbooks2.htm through http://www.thrombosis-consult.com.
Beaven, A. (2002 July 12). Ethylene Glycol and Methanol Toxicity. Univ of NC at Chapel Hill, Department of Internal Medicine [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.med.unc.edu/medicine/web/ethyleneglycol.pdf through http://www.med.unc.edu.
(2002). Acid-Base Emergencies, Part 1. Texas Society for Respiratory Care [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.tsrc.org/cert005/ through http://www.tsrc.org.
Welch, J. (1998 April 30, Modified). Increased Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis. Georgetown University, NetScut [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.family.georgetown.edu/welchjj/netscut/acid_base/Increased_Anion_Gap_Metabolic_Acidosis.html through http://www.family.georgetown.edu.
Welch, J. (1998 April 30, Modified). Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis. Georgetown University, NetScut [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.family.georgetown.edu/welchjj/netscut/acid_base/Normal_Anion_Gap_Metabolic_Acidosis.html through http://www.family.georgetown.edu.
(1995-2004). Minerals and Electrolytes. The Merck Manual of Medical Information – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec12/ch155/ch155a.html?qt=electrolytes&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com.
Ben-Joseph, E., Reviewed (2004 July). Dehydration. Familydoctor.org Information for Parents [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=familydoctor&lic=44&article_set=21646 through http://www.kidshealth.org.
Webner, D., Updated (2003 August 18). CO2. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003469.htm.
A.D.A.M. editorial, Updated (2003 October 15). Electrolytes. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 333-337.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007.
(August 14, 2007). MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, Electrolytes. Available online athttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm. Accessed May 2008.