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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2011, Pp 519-521.
Wu a, et al. Antiquated Tests Within the Clinical Pathology Laboratory. Am J Manag Care. 2010;16(9):e220-e22. Available online at http://www.ajmc.com/publications/issue/2010/2010-09-vol16-n09/AJMC_10sep_Wu_Xcl_e220to227 through http://www.ajmc.com. Accessed February 2014.
(November 2012) Saenger A, Block D. C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Testing: Should Both Be Ordered? Mayo Clinic Communique. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/articles/communique/2012/11utiliz.html through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed February 2014.
(September 30, 2013) Fran Lowry. Inflammatory Markers Elevated in Patients With Stable Pain. Medscape Medical News. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/811874 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed February 2014.
(Updated: Feb 15, 2012) Lin J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2085201-overview#a30 through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2014.
Curvers J, et al. Evaluation of the Ves-Matic Cube 200 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Method Comparison With Westergren-Based Methods. (2010) American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 134, 653-660. Available online at http://ajcp.ascpjournals.org/content/134/4/653.long through http://ajcp.ascpjournals.org. Accessed February 2014.
(February 18, 2003) Paget S. CRP and Inflammatory Diseases. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/449312 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed February 2014.
Stojan G, et al. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a predictor of renal and overall SLE disease activity, Lupus. 2013 July; 22(8): 10. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703841/ through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed February 2014.
Kermani TA, et al. Utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jun;41(6):866-71. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307891/ through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed February 2014.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Brigden, M (October 1, 1999). Clinical Utility of the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/991001ap/1443.html through http://www.aafp.org.
Shojania, Kam (2000). Rheumatology: 2. What laboratory tests are needed? Canadian Medical Association Journal: CMAJ 2000, 162(8):1157-63. Available online at http://www.cma.ca/cmaj/vol-162/issue-8/1157.htm#ery through http://www.cma.ca.
MEDLINEplus (October 3, 2001). Medical Encyclopedia: ESR. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. MEDLINEplus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003638.htm.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (1999). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 4th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Zlonis M: The mystique of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate - a reappraisal of one of the oldest laboratory tests still in use. Clin Lab Med 1993;13:787-800.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, 465-466.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, 233-235.
Cha CH, et al (Aug 24, 2009). Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Measurements by TEST 1 Better Reflect Inflammation Than Do Those by the Westergren Method in Patients With Malignancy, Autoimmune Disease, or Infection. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2009;131(2):189-194. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/707423 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2010.
(May 7, 2009) Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia: ESR. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003638.htm. Accessed April 2010.