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Influenza Tests

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Also known as: Flu Test; Rapid Flu Test; Influenza Antigen Test; H1N1; Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test; RIDT; Flu PCR
Formal name: Influenza Rapid Antigen Test; Influenza Type A and B Antigen Detection; Influenza A and B Culture; Influenza Type A H1N1; PCR for Influenza Virus

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Reviewed March 2013. Influenza Virus. Arup Consult. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfluenzaVirus.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed November 2013.

Reviewed December 2012. Laboratory Support for Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt22-lab-support.html through http://www.cdc.gov/. Accessed November 2013.

Reviewed March 2012. Guidance for Clinicians on the Use of RT-PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/diagnosis/molecular-assays.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed November 2013.

Reviewed December 2011. Influenza Symptoms and the Role of Laboratory Diagnostics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/diagnosis/labrolesprocedures.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed November 2013.

Reviewed October 2013. Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/overview.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed November 2013.

Updated February 2012. Diagnostic Influenza Tests. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2053517-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Ault, A. (2002 October 7). CDC Urges Flu, Pneumococcal Shots for Seniors. MEDLINEplus & Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_9746.html.

NIAID (2001 July). Flu. Fact Sheet, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/flu.htm through http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/flu.htm.

CDC (2002 September 20, Updated). Flu Facts for Everyone. Centers For Disease Control (CDC) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/Flu/Public.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

CDC (2002 July 9, Reviewed). Influenza: The Disease. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/fluinfo.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

CDC (2002 July 9, Reviewed). Antiviral Drug Information. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/fluviral.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

CDC (2002). Laboratory Diagnostic Procedures for Influenza, Diagnosis of influenza. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/flu_dx_table.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

CDC (2001 November 27, Modified). Inhalational Anthrax, Influenza, or Influenza-like Illness? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/Flu/MMWR_summary_11-9.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Hurtado, R. (2002 March 1). Influenza. MEDLINEplus Health Information, Encylopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000080.htm.

Montato, N., et. al. (2000 December 1). Updated Treatment for Influenza A and B. American Family Physician [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001201/2467.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Kingston, B. and Wright, C. (2002 January 1). Influenza in the Nursing Home. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20020101/75.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Baylor College of Medicine (2002). Virology Question of the Month, How accurate are the new rapid tests for flu? Diagnostic Virology Laboratory Newsletter [On-line newsletter]. Available online at http://www.bcm.tmc.edu/pedi/infect/dvl/nws10_2001.htm through http://www.bcm.tmc.edu.

Locke, J. (2001 July 9). Rapid Infectious Disease Testing (Strep and Flu Diagnostics) - The Promise and Pitfalls. Clinical Laboratory Strategies [Unpublished version of published article]. Available E-mail: jtechwriter@yahoo.com

Harvard (2002 October). Fleeing crummy? Is it the flu? Harvard Health Letter [Newsletter]. Associated online at http://www.health.harvard.edu.

College of American Pathology (2002 October 09). CLIA Waived Test List. CAP Laboratory Improvement, Surveys/EXCEL (On-line serial). Available online at http://www.cap.org/html/lip/waived.html through http://www.cap.org.

(Updated 2009 December 24). H1N1 Flu: Diagnosis and Lab Testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/diagnosis/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

Chang, H. (2009 November 4). Influenza. JAMA. 2009;302(17):1926 On-line information]. Available online at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/302/17/1926.pdf through http://jama.ama-assn.org. Accessed March 2010.

(Updated 2009 December 7). Updated Interim Recommendations for the Use of Antiviral Medications in the Treatment and Prevention of Influenza for the 2009-2010 Season. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

(2009 September 29). Questions & Answers, Influenza Diagnostic Testing During the 2009-2010 Flu Season. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/diagnostic_testing_public_qa.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

(2010 February 10). Questions & Answers, 2009 H1N1 Flu ("Swine Flu") and You. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

Derlet, R. et. al. (Updated 2009 December 8). Influenza. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219557-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2010.

Bronze, M. S. (Updated 2010 January 27). H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1807048-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2010.

Katz, M. et. al. (2009 March 13). Use of Rapid Tests and Antiviral Medications for Influenza Among Primary Care Providers in the United States. Medscape Today from Influenza Resp Viruses. 2009;3(1):29-35 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588778 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed March 2010.

(2009 November 13). Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers: Interpreting ELITech Molecular Diagnostics 2009-H1N1 Influenza A virus Real-Time RT-PCR Test Results ARUP Laboratories [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.arup-lab.com/Testing-Information/resources/HotLines/H1N1-HealthcareProviders-InterpretingTestResults.pdf through http://www.arup-lab.com. Accessed March 2010.

Hillyard, D. et. al. (Updated 2010 February). Influenza Virus. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfluenzaVirus.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed March 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 September 30). H1N1 flu (swine flu). MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/swine-flu/DS01144 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 September 11). Influenza (flu). MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/influenza/DS00081 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2010.

(2009 August 10). Interim Guidance for the Detection of Novel Influenza A Virus Using Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance/rapid_testing.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

(Updated 2010 March 8). CDC Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases, Hospitalizations and Deaths in the United States, April 2009 – February 13, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/estimates_2009_h1n1.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.

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Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 729.