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Serum Free Light Chains

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Also known as: Free Light Chains; SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light Chains; Quantitative Serum Free Light Chains with Ratio
Formal name: Light Chains, Free; Free Kappa/Lambda Ratio

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

2017 review performed by Gregary T. Bocsi, DO.

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Kumar S, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Aug;17(8):e328-46. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27511158. Accessed May 2017.

Gertz MA. Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2014 update on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Am J Hematol. 2014 Dec;89(12):1132-40. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407896. Accessed May 2017.

Rajkumar SV. Updated Diagnostic Criteria and Staging System for Multiple Myeloma. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016;35:e418-23. Available online at http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/content/159009-176. Accessed May 2017.

Bridoux F, et al. Diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Kidney Int. 2015 Apr;87(4):698-711. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607108. Accessed May 2017.

Yadav P, et al. The use of immunoglobulin light chain assays in the diagnosis of paraprotein-related kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2015 Apr;87(4):692-7. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296094. Accessed May 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Rogoski, R. (2009 July). Serum free light chain assays: Detecting plasma cell disorders. Medical Laboratory Observer [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mlo-online.com/features/2009_july/0709_coverstory.aspx. Accessed August 2010.

(© 1995–2010). Unit Code 84190: Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/84190. Accessed August 2010.

Delgado, J. et. al. (Updated 2010 August). Plasma Cell Dyscrasias. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/PlasmaCellDyscrasias.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed August 2010.

Grethlein, S. and Thomas, L. (Updated 2010 June 28). Multiple Myeloma. eMedicine. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204369-overview. Accessed August 2010.

Hutchison, C. et. al. (2008 November 5). Serum Free Light Chain Measurement Aids the Diagnosis of Myeloma in Patients With Severe Renal Failure. Medscape from BMC Nephrology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/582826. Accessed August 2010.

Faix, J. (2009 March/April). Serum Free Light Chain for Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Detection and Management. Stanford Hospital and Clinics, LABletter [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.stanfordlab.com/images/PDF/2009MarApr.pdf. Accessed August 2010.

Nau, K. and Lewis, W. (2008 October 1). Multiple Myeloma. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Oct 1;78(7): 853-859 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p853.html. Accessed August 2010.

Hutchison, C. et. al. (2009 November). Serum free light chain assessment in monoclonal gammopathy and kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology 5, 621-628 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nature.com/nrneph/journal/v5/n11/full/nrneph.2009.151.html. Accessed August 2010.

Killingsworth, L. (2009 January). Free Light Chain Assays, Enhanced Tools for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Monoclonal Gammopathies. PAML Test Update [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.paml.com/Files/TestUpdates/38270747_TestUpdateFreeLightChainAssays.pdf. Accessed August 2010.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 203.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 674-675.

Dispenzieri A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for serum-free light chain analysis in multiple myeloma and related disorders. Leukemia (2009) 23, 215–224. Available onlien at http://www.nature.com/leu/journal/v23/n2/full/leu2008307a.html. Accessed September 2010.

MayoClinic.com. Amyloidosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/amyloidosis/DS00431. Accessed September 2010.

(October 5, 2005) Amyloidosis Foundation. What is amyloidosis? Available online at http://amyloidosis.org/whatisit.asp. Accessed September 2010.

(January 2010) Cancer.net. Amyloidosis. Available online at http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer+Types/Amyloidosis?sectionTitle=Symptoms. Accessed September 2010.

Tosi, P. et. al. (2013). Serum Free Light-chain Assay for the Detection and Monitoring of Multiple Myeloma and Related Conditions. Medscape Multispecialty from Ther Adv Hem. 2013;4(1):37-41. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/779242. Accessed December 2013.

Charafeddine, K. et. al. (2012). Extended Use of Serum Free Light Chain as a Biomarker in Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Medscape Multispecialty from Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137(6):890-897. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/765905. Accessed December 2013.

Parmar, M. (Updated 2013 April 18). Light Chain-Associated Renal Disorders. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/244082-overview. Accessed December 2013.

Bahler, D. et. al. (Updated 2013 June). Plasma Cell Dyscrasias. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/PlasmaCellDyscrasias.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed December 2013.

(© 1995–2013). Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/84190. Accessed December 2013.

Boppana, S. and Sacher, R. (Updated 2013 April 29). Light-Chain Deposition Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202585-overview. Accessed December 2013

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 150-151.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 243-244.