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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
(Jan 2016) American Liver Foundation. Liver Function Tests. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/liverfunctiontests/. Accessed August 13, 2016.
(Nov 2009) Gowda, S. et. al. A review on laboratory liver function tests. The Pan African Medical Journal. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984286/. Accessed August 13, 2016.
(May 2015) M. Lazo and J. Clark. Johns Hopkins Medicine POC-IT Guides. Liver function. Available online at http://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547086/all/Liver_function. Accessed August 13, 2016.
(Feb 2015). MedlinePlus. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test. Available online at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003458.htm. Accessed August 13, 2016.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Mayo 2001 Test Catalog, Mayo Medical Laboratories, Rochester, MN, 2000 Mayo Press.
Worman, H (1998). Common Laboratory Tests in Liver Diseases. Columbia University Health Sciences. Available online at http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/labtests.html.
Johnston, D (April 15, 1999). Special Considerations in Interpreting Liver Function Tests. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/990415ap/2223.html.
Riley, T (November 1, 2001). Preventive Strategies in Chronic Liver Disease: Part I. Alcohol, Vaccines, Toxic Medications and Supplements, Diet and Exercise. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20011101/1555.html.
British Liver Trust Information Service (Last update September, 10 2001). Cirrhosis. British Liver Trust. Available online at http://www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/publications/cirrhosis.html.
MEDLINEplus (October 3, 2001). Medical Encyclopedia: ESR. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. MEdlinePlus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003638.htm.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (1999). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 4th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Dufour DR, et al. Diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic injury - I. Characteristics of laboratory tests. Clin Chem 2000; 46:2027-2049.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pg 613.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, Pp. 259-260.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC, Pg. 271.
Carey, W (January 1, 2009). Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests, Cleveland Clinic. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hepatology/guide-to-common-liver-tests/. Accessed September 2009.
Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson RA and Pincus MR, eds. Philadelphia: 2007, Pp 86, 275.
(2000) Dufour, DR et al. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Standards of Laboratory Practice: Laboratory Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/NACB/LMPG/hepatic/hepatic_combined.pdf#page=3.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, part of NIDDK, NIH. NSAIDS and Peptic Ulcers. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/nsaids/. Accessed September 20, 2010.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003458.htm. Accessed September 20, 2010.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (Updated Jan. 21, 2013.) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003458.htm. Accessed September 2013.
Kim, KM et al. (Dec. 2012) Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase as a risk factor for general cardiovascular disease prediction in Koreans. National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed database. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138005. Accessed September 2013.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase level and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS. Available online through http://www.plosone.org at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0048878. Accessed September 2013.
Ghadban, R. et. al. (Updated Aug. 2, 2012). Gamma-Glutamyltransferase. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2087891-overview#aw2aab6b3. Accessed September 2013.
KidsHealth. Blood Test: Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT). Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/test_ggt.html. Accessed September 2013.
George, Hank. GGT - Gammaglutamyl Transferase. December, 2000. Available online at http://www.stat.unc.edu/visitors/temp/Health/Thyroid/ggt2.htm. Accessed September 2013.
General Practice Notebook. GGT and alcohol intake. Available online at http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=x20080405181818225450. Accessed September 2013.